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HE/שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה: המייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של אִיסְקוֹן - מסמך יסוד של הג'י.בּי.סי

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הערה מפי הועדה המבצעת של הג'י.בּי.סי של אִיסְקוֹן

מאמר זה, שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה: המייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של אִיסְקוֹן, שחובר ע"י רַוִינְדְרַה סְוָארֻוּפַּה דָאסַה, מאושר רשמית על ידי ועד הגוף המנהל של איסקון (ג'י.בּי.סי). הג'י.בּי.סי מבקש מכל הדבקים והחברים של אִיסְקוֹן לתת תשומת-לב עמוקה וזהירה למאמר הזה. כך ירחיב הדבר את הבנתנו כקבוצה, וההערכה, למעמדו של שרילה פרבהופאדה ותפקידו הייחודי בחברה הבינלאומית למען תודעת קרישנה.

שרילה פרבהופאדה לא נשא כפשוטו את המסר של הריבון צַ'יְתַנְיַה וקרישנה למעננו. למרות שזו כשלעצמה משימה ראויה-לשבח, שרילה פרבהופאדה, כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה שלנו, יצר את עצם היסוד, הפעולה והחזון של אִיסְקוֹן כקהילה גלובלית השואפת "לחדש רוחנית את כל החברה האנושית."

התפקיד של שרילה פרבהופאדה, כפי שתקראו, הולך וממשיך. נוכחותו נולדה להיות מורגשת בחיים של כל דבק אִיסְקוֹן כיום, ובחייהם של דבקים מאות רבות לתוך העתיד. ההבנה איך שרילה פרבהופאדה הוא במרכז חיינו והחברה שלנו, והידיעה כיצד להשאיר אותו בתפקיד החיוני הזה, היא מטרת הטקסט. כפי שכותב בְּהַקְתי צְ'הַרוּ סְוָאמִי בפתיחה, "ספר זה לא נועד לקריאה חטופה ומזדמנת, אלא ליישום."

הועדה המבצעת של הג'י.בּי.סי
דצמבר, 2013

פתיחה

שרילה פרבהופאדה הוא ללא ספק האישיות הנשלחה בידי שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ למלא את תחזיתו: "נולדתי לתוך עולם זה על מנת לחנוך את תנועת הַסַּנְֹקִירְתַנַה. אני אושיע את כל הנשמות הנפולות של עולם זה… בכל עיר ובכל כפר בעולם, זמרת השמות - הַסַּנְֹקִירְתַן שלי תתפשט" (צַ'יְתַנְיַה בְּהָאגַוַתַה, אַנְתְיַה 4, 120, 126).

בשביל להבין את התפקיד הייחודי של שרילה פרבהופאדה מנקודת מבט של זרם הַגַּוּדִּיַה, עלינו לנסוע אחורנית בזמן ולהשיג ראיה היסטורית כיצד התוכנית של צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ למלא את תחזיתו מתרחשת בהדרגה. ברגע שובו מגיא, שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ החל את משימת הַנָּאמַה-סַנְֹקִירְתַנַה שלו. ובחלוקת נָאמַה פְּרֵמַה, "הוא ושותפיו לא הבחינו בין זה שהיה מועמד ראוי ומי שלא, אף לא היכן חלוקה כזו אמורה להתרחש או שלא. הם לא יצרו תנאים. היכן שנקלה על דרכם ההזדמנות, חילקו חבריה של הַפַּנְֿצַ'ה-תַתְתְוַה אהבת אלוהים" (צַ'יְתַנְַיה צ'ריתָאמְרּיתַה, אָאדִי-לִילָא 7.23).

שטפון זה של נָאמַה פְּרֵמה מילא את כל רוחות השמיים והמשיך לברך עולם זה תחת מקלט המורים המזמינים והמסבירים המועצמים כגון ששת הַגּוֹסְוָאמִים, שְׂרִיניוָאסַה אָאצָ'ארְיַה, נַרוֹתְתַם דַס טְהָאקוּר וּשְׂיָאמָאנַנְדַה פְּרַבְּהוּ.

לרוע המזל, לאחר עזיבתם של שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ ושותפיו המועצמים שלו, עידן אפל מאוד ירד על עולם הַגַּוּדְּיַה וַיְשְׁנַּויזְם. בהשפעת עידן קלי, אַפַּסַמְפְּרַדָאיוֹת רבות, כתות מוליכות-שולל מדרך הישר, לחלוטין האפילו על הצגתו הטהורה של צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו את תודעת קְרּישְׁנַּה עם התפיסות והמנהגים הנמהרים והחומרניים. את כל זאת עשו בשמו! מוקדם מאוד, זוהו מדרשיו קל וחומר עם אי-מוסריות, דּוֹגְמָה ויסודות א-סוציאליים. כתוצאה, פיתחה עילית האנשים התרבותיים והמחונכים של הודו רתיעה עמוקה כלפי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ. העידן האפל הזה נמשך כמעט 250 שנים.

בכדי להחיות את תנועת הַסַּנְֹקִירְתַנַה שלו ולהאיר שוב את שמי הַגַּוּדְיַה, שלח שרי צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו את אחד השותפים האינטימיים שלו, בְּהַקְתיוינוֹדַה טְהָאקוּר, לעולם זה. גדוש איתנה נשגבת, כתב בהקתיוינודה טהאקור ללא-לאות על מנת להביס את כל הפילוסופיות הלא-מאושרות והסוטות המנוגדות להצגה של צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ את תודעת קרישנה. דרך כתיבתו הבלתי-נדלית והממוקדת, חשף את כל הפילוסופיות הא-דהרמיות של אותה העת, ושוב גילה לעולם אודות הנתיב השייך לצ'יתניה מהאפרבהו של ברכה עליונה בעיתה וחמלה: משימת הַנָּאמַסַנְֹקִירְתַנַה שלו. כתבים אלו מאוחר יותר ייצרו את הבסיס הפילוסופי למערכת ולתוכנית המוסדית המבוססת של בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה להניע לידי מימוש את חיזויו של צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו. תגליתו המחודשת של בְּהַקְתיוינוֹדַה טְהָאקוּר של מקום הלידה של צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו ומסירתו של תוכנית-על (בצורת ה"נָאמַהַטְטַה") למימוש רצונו של צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו שֶׁהַנָּאמַה-סַנְֹקִירְתַנַה תופץ בכל רחבי העולם היתה אות מובן מאוד ומרשים לשכנוע המוחלט שלו במילים של שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ. עם זאת, הוא ידע שמשימה כבירת-מימדים זו של הפצת תודעת קרישנה בכל רחבי תבל תזדקק למעורבות הקיבוצית של אלפי אנשים לדורותיהם. היא לא תוכל להיות, ולא תהיה, מעמסה של איש אחד - מוסד טרנסצנדנטלי הוא מן הצורך המוחלט.

תפילותיו החדורות לריבון גַ'גַנְנָאתְהַה נענו וּבְהַקתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתי טְהָאקוּרַה הופיע בעולם כבנו לתת צורה מעשית לתוכנית-העל בצורת משימת הַגַּוּדְּיַה. בתוך חמש-עשרה שנים זריזות, שלח בהקתיסידדהאנתה סרסותי טהאקורה את תנועת הַסַּנְֹקִירְתַנַה של צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו בכל רחבי הודו ומשך מאורות רבים באותה העת לסייע לו במשימתו. שישים-וארבע מטהות אשר הוקדשו להפצת מדרשיו של צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ התבססו בהודו באותו הזמן.

בהקתיסידדהאנתה סרסותי טהאקורה הכיר בחשיבות המוסד שלו להזמנה והסברה איתנות לאחר עזיבתו מן העולם. תוך קרבה ובאופן פתוח הורה לתלמידיו המובילים שמשימת הַגַּוּדְיַה תנוהל ותקוים על ידי גוף מנהל. באורח פתע, לא מינה כיורש הרוחני שלו איש. הוא עזב את העולם באחד בינואר, 1937, וכמעט מיד פרצה מחלוקת ומריבה כאש בשדה קוצים במשימת הַגַּוּדְּיַה. במהרה המוסד שתמיד היה ידוע בשל הזמנה והסברה טהורות ואמיצות של מדרשי צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו נעשה מפורסם על שברים ארגוניים ותיקי בית-משפט. שתי סיעות יריבות התגודדו על הְיוֹת הָאָא'צָארְיַה וָחניכים בוגרים רבים נטשו את המוסד ברגשות סלידה. הישות המאוחדת של משימת הַגַּוּדְּיַה על זהותה הכלל-הודית הבנויה ממרכזים רבים, הוצאות-לאור רבות, ואלפי דבקים העובדים יחד בתיאום תוך שיתוף-פעולה תחת הנהגה מאוחדת פסקה מלהתקיים. אשליות של טענות לזכות-מקור ויוקרה כוזבות הִצילּוּ על מסדרו של שרילה בהקתיסידדהאנתה טהאקורה, ואילו משימתו - לפיתוחה של תנועה כלל-עולמית להפצת מדרשיו של צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו - באה לסיום בסגירתה.

שרילה פרבהופאדה שלנו, א.צ'. בהקתיודאנתה סואמי, חווה שברון לב כתוצאה מתהפוכה טראגית זו של האירועים, אמנם היה זה ברור מפעולותיו שהוא הבין באופן מושלם את ליבו ואת משימתו של המורה הרוחני:

מרגע שמספר עוקבים ניו יורקיים לקחו את המסר לליבם, הוא יצר באופן חוקי את המוסד שלו. הוא קרא לו החברה הבינלאומית לתודעת קרישנה ומכאן ציין באופן חוקי את שבע מטרותיה. כל זאת קרה מוקדם, כ-1966.

על מנת להמשיך את משימתו של צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו ולבטח את המורשת הטרנסצנדנטלית של אִיסְקוֹן, שרילה פרבהופאדה הורה באופן שיטתי מאוד לבסס את ועד הגוף המנהל ובאופן קרוב מאוד הורה לעוקביו הבכירים: "אל תעשו את אותה טעות שאחי הרוחניים עשו לאחר עזיבתו של גוּרוּ מַהָארָאגַ'ה. נהלו את החברה באופן קיבוצי דרך הג'י.בּי.סי."

בשביל לבטח את איסקון כמשימה טרנסצנדנטלית עם בסיס פילוסופי ותרבותי חזק, הוא עבד ללא-לאות ובאופן יסודי תרגם והעיר על מדרשיו החשובים ביותר והנשגבים של שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ בצורת הבהגוד-גיתא, שרימד-בהאגותם וצ'יתניה-צ'ריתאמריתה. הוא חזר והדגיש שספריו הם הבסיס לתנועה שלו לתודעת קרישנה ומוסד איסקון.

בדומה לְגוּרוּ מַהָארָאגַ'ה שלו, הוא לא נקב בשם או בחר יורש לְאיסְקוֹן שלו, במקום זאת, הוא רצה שתלמידיו ינהלו קיבוצית את המוסד דרך גוף מנהל.

בזמן שהייתי העוזר האישי של שרילה פרבהופאדה, ציינתי פעמים רבות שהוא יתעקש שעל כל חומר מודפס הכותרת מייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה ושמו המלא יודפסו תחת שם החברה של אִיסְקוֹן. הייתי מאוד לא-בשל ובלתי-מנוסה באותו הזמן ולעתים תהיתי, "שרילה פרבהופאדה הוא וַיְשְׁנַּוַה כל כך ענו ומרומם, מדוע הוא בעצמו עומד בעקשנות על כך?" חרף לא ביטאתי זאת בקול לפני שרילה פרבהופאדה, המשיך הדבר להטריד אותי. אמנם לאיטו, בחסדו השמימי, בבוא הזמן, התחלתי להבין את כוונתו. צמד המילים "מייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה" אינו תואר בלבד אלא מערכת טרנסצנדנטלית שנועדה להגן, לשמר ולתת אריכות-ימים למוסד המוקדש לישועה רחבת-ההיקף של נשמות מותנות בכל רחבי העולם הזה בעידן ההפכפך של קַלי.

גדולי וַיְשְׁנַּוַה אֶיתנים כגון שְׂרִי מַדְהְוָאצָ'ארְיַה וּשְׂרִי רָאמָאנוּגָ'אצָ'ארְיַה יישמו בהצלחה מערכת זו.

מן הסתם, יישום מלא של מערכת זו בְּאיסְקוֹן חיוני להצלחת מילוי התחזית של צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו. שיתפתי תובנה זו עם מתי-מעט מאחיי הרוחניים הבוגרים והרגשתי רוח בְּקִרְבִּי לגלות ששרילה פרבהופאדה ברך אותם עם אותה התובנה בדיוק.

אז, ב-2006, גוף הג'י.בי.סי יצר ועדות שונות לתכנן ולהשיג מטרות אוביקטיביות שונות. אחת מהן היא ועדת מעמד שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה, שמשימתה לסייע למאמצים הקיימים ולפתח יוזמות חדשות לביסוסו הנצחי של שרילה פרבהופאדה כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של איסקון וְשׂיקְשַׁה גוּרוּ מתבקש-מראש של כל דבקי אִיסְקּוֹן. ספר זה הוא יוזמה של ועדה זו.

חסדו רַוִינְדְרַה סְוַרֻוּפַּה פְּרַבְּהוּ, שהוא ללא ספק אחד מהוגי הדעות והסופרים של אִיסְקּוֹן, כתב את הספר וכל חברי הג'י.בּי.סי ודבקים בוגרים רבים ביכרו אותו ברצינות ובחריצות.

ספר זה חקור ביסודיות ומתבסס על שָׂאסְתְרַה ועובדות היסטוריות. הוא אקדמי מטבעו ומעניק יסוד שעליו נוכל לבנות תרבות הוליסטית של חינוך שנועדה באופן מוצק ומעשי מאוד לבסס את מעמדו של שרילה פרבהופאדה כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של איסקון. כמובן, תודעת קרישנה טהורה לא מכירה בטכניקה כלשהי - בסיסה לבדו הוא ענווה והתמסרות מוחלטת וכנועה. ובכך במצב-רוח זה אנו מציעים פרסום זה לצ'יתניה מהאפרבהו, שרילה פרבהופאדה וכל הדבקים שלו.

ציין נא שספר זה לא נועד לקריאה חטופה ומזדמנת אלא ליישום. אם נעשה זאת, יחסינו האישיים והקיבוציים עם שרילה פרבהופאדה יפרחו ללא-גבולות ואנו נמצא לנכון להבין באופן מעשי ביותר שהמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה האהוב שלנו אינו קפוא בזמן. הוא עוזר נצחי לשטפון השמימי של חמלתו ואהבתו של צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו לִקְרּישְׁנַּה, ואילו לבו נמס וזורם ללא הגבלה או מחסום כלפי כולם וכל מי שמראה עניין קלוש ביותר במדרשיו וּמשימת הַנָּאמַסַנְֹקִירְתַנַה.

אנו מבקשים בענווה את תמיכתם האוהדת והפעילה ביישום הצעד החשוב והבא בתוכנית של שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ להציף את העולם כולו בִּקְּרּישְׁנַּה פְּרֵמַה - לבסס באופן יציב ומעשי את שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה כמייסד-אָא'צָארְיַה של אִיסְקּוֹן לכל הזמנים.

תודה רבה לכם.

שלכם בשירות לִשְּׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה,
בְּהַקְתי צְ'הַרוּ סְוָאמִי
וְרּינְדָאוַן, הודו
נובמבר, 2013

מבוא

העבודה בידך - או על המסך שלך - מוצעת לך כמאמץ בשל של פרויקט התכנון האינטנסיבי, רב-האנפין והאסטרטגי ששוגר ב-2006 על ידי ועד הגוף המנהל של איסקון. מאמץ מתמשך זה הביא יחדיו דבקים רבים מכל העולם לעסוק בתכנון שיטתי ופיתוח להביא לידי מימוש עתיד משגשג ופורח לתנועה של שרילה פרבהופאדה. לבסוף, שואפים אנו להעצמה של הארגון כולו - כל אחד מחבריו, על יחידותיו הרבות, עם סמכויות מנחות ומנהלות - כך שכולם עובדים מאוחדים בשיתוף פעולה אפקטיבי להביא לידי מימוש ופרי את הרצונות של שרילה פרבהופאדה ושרי צ'יתניה מהאפרבהו. מן ההתחלה, כולם הבינו שיסוד אחד מסוים חיוני למען הישג זה והוא, כפי שקוראים אותו לרוב, "לשים את שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה במרכז."

בהקשר זה, צוות התכנון האסטרטגי היה מודע באופן מוחשי לכך שהעתיד הקרוב יעמת את אִיסְקּוֹן מול אתגר מהותי: המעבר הבלתי-נמנע לזמן בו כל הדבקים עם חוויה ישירה של המייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה שלהם היו ואינם. אבידה מהותית זו נעשתה לתמריץ נוסף לעבודתה של ועדת מעמד שרילה פרבהופאדה (ומש"פ). כל חבריה הבינו ששרילה פרבהופאדה צריך להיות נוכח לא פחות לדורות הבאים משהיה לראשון. (אכן, כמה האמינו, יכול הוא להיות אף יותר). איך להביא זאת לידי ביטוי? כיצד לטפח בכל דבקי אִיסְקּוֹן, דור אחר דור, מודעות הולכת וגוברת של הקשר העמוק שלהם עם המייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה, כך שכולם יפגשו בו כנוכחות חיה בחייהם? כיצד משימתו, מדרשיו, חזונו, החלטיותו, חמלתו, יעשו לאחד עם כל אותו לב פועם?

כחבר של ומש"פ, הפקידו בידי את המשימה לכתיבת מסמך לדבקי אִיסְקּוֹן על המשמעות של מעמד שרילה פרבהופאדה כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה.

משקיבלתי מטלה זו, מצאתי את עצמי מבלה ימים כלילות רבים בחשיבה, בכפייתיות מה, על שרילה פרבהופאדה - אודות חייו ומורשתו, תנועתו, עלי כחניך ובאופן דומה, גם אחיי ואחיותיי הרוחניים. במהלך ימים ולילות אלה, מצבי רוחי ונפשי חיש התרוממו להם, אמנם היו מושהים ממסקנות החלטיות כלשהן. או אז, התיישבתי, ובשעתיים או שלוש, כתבתי הצהרה קצרה - לא יותר משלושה דפים - שנראתה כבאה מעצמה. היא הייתה מבוססת על מעט או לא מחקר, וללא ממצאים חדשים - פשוט אך ורק האינטואיציות וה"תובנות" שלי. עידנתי זאת כלשהו, ובהזדמנות הניתנת הבאה, הצגתי זאת בפני החברים האחרים של קבוצת התכנון האסטרטגי.

למרבה ההקלה שלי, התגובה החיובית למכביר נטעה בי לפחות את שֶׁפָּני לכיוון הנכון. כיוון זה בא לידי צורה מוחשית בידי ההוראה למילוי. "נהדר", הם אמרו, "עד כה. עתה - כתוב ביאור."

עלי לציין שה"גדול ונפלא" בא מלווה במשפחה של הערות מפורטות - המבקשות, במקום אחד או אחר, יותר תמיכה, הבהרה, או פיתוח; כאלה המצביעות על אי-התנהלות או איזורים של בלבול; הצעות לתחומים אחרים המיועדים להכללה או חקר, וכן הלאה. לקחתי הערות אלה הרחק איתי - הן התגלו כמסייעות באופן יוצא מגדר הרגיל - ואילו אז, לאחר גימור ההוראה הקצרה מחדש, עשיתי כפי שהתבקשתי, והתחלתי לכתוב ביאור.

כתוצאה, המוצר המוגמר, עתה ביד, בא בצורה של טקסט עם ביאור עליו. הטקסט ניתן ראשון, בידי עצמו. הביאור הארוך בהרבה בא אחריו. בחלק זה, הטקסט העיקרי עושה את הופעתו ברצף הנכון, אמנם הוא שבור לחטיבות נוחות. הטקסט העיקרי מודפס בעובי מודגש, בעוד הביאור שתחתיו באופן הרגיל.

הטקסט הינו קצר, רק 1,300 מילים (5 עמודים). הביאור, כפי שהסתבר, הוא ארוך, בערך 21,000 מילים (79 עמודים). הטקסט בתחילה לקח בקירוב שלוש שעות לחברו; הביאור, שש שנים.

הטקסט העיקרי הוא פשוט ומותאם למדי לקהל רחב. הביאור מיועד בפרט למי שהוא, או השואף להיות, פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה-שׂישְׁיַה, תלמיד שׂיקְשָׁא אמיתי של שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה. זו, אכן, צריכה להיות המטרה של כל חברי אִיסְקּוֹן, וזה, כשלעצמו, יביא למילוי של משאלות-הלב הנוגעות של הריבון צַ'יְתַנְיַה.

העבודה הארוכה באופן בלתי-צפוי ולעתים קשה על הביאור הביאה לי ברכה שלא חזיתי מראש: למדתי דברים לעומק שלפנים ידעתי רק באופן שטחי או רשמי. התחלתי עבודה זו ביודעי שֶׁשְּׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה היה דבק גדול, אמנם עתה רכשתי ידע יסודי ומעמיק יותר מה היתה מוטת כתפיו - מודעות, אני מתוודה, הממשיכה לגדול. מה שגיליתי הרחיב באופן עצום את הידע שלי אודות ההישג של שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה וטיפחה צמיחה חדשה באהבתי ואסירות-התודה שלי כלפיו. מתנה זו של ידע גם הראתה לי עד כמה מוטל על כתפי, כתלמידו, להאיר את גדולתו באמצעות העדות הכנה ביותר, זו של החניכות שלי.

יתרה מזאת, יכולתי לראות באופן יותר מלא את מלוא המובן של התואר המהולל אותו הוא נושא בגאון, "המייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של החברה הבינלאומית לתודעת קְרּישְׁנַּה."

אני מתפלל שקריאת עבודה זו תעשה למענך, מה שכתיבתה עשתה בשבילי.

אני מעוניין להכיר בתלות המחייבת העמוקה שלי בכל מי שסייע, עודד, הדריך, הנגיש, ותיקן אותי בהבאה לגמר של מוצר זה. המשימה האסטרטגית הכוללת לתכנון, בהדרכת גוֹפָּאלַה בְּהַטְטַה פְּרַבְּהוּ ועוזריו בעלי-היכולת, יצרה והזינה את התנאים שהביאה תוצאה זו - "מובאת כמו שהיא" - אפשרית. הומש"פ, נכון לרגע זה בראשות ח"ה בְּהַקְתי צְ'הַרוּ סְוָאמִי וְאַקְרֻוּרַה פְּרַבְּהוּ, עברה דרך מספר שינויים בחבריה במהלך שבע שנים, ובכל זאת המשוב המתמד והעידוד מכל אלה שמשרתים וששירתו בקבוצה זו הוכיחו עצמם בעלי-ערך כלפי יותר ממה שיכולתי לעתים קרובות לבטא. אני עושה כן כעת, באסירות-תודה. דבקים ותיקים רבים מחוץ לומש"פ ראו והעירו גם הם את העבודה בהמשכה. באופן פרטי, "סַנְֹגַה מיוחדת של סַנְנְיָאסִים, גוּרוּים וג'י.בּי.סי" של מאה מנהיגים לערך, התכנסה בְּמָאיָאפּוּרַה בפברואר 2013, נתנה הערות על טיוטא של המילים, ולקחה את הזמן לספק הערות יקרות-מפז והשתקפויות. אותה הטיוטא יצאה נשכרת מן התגובה שבאה בשם עשרים או יותר של חברים ותיקים אחרים. מתוך כך עלתה טיוטא "סופית", שקיבלה משוב פעם נוספת מידי הג'י.בּי.סי בזמן פגישה בְּג'וּהוּ באוקטובר 2013. עם מעט יותר הצעות לשיפור, הג'י.בּי.סי נתן את אישורו פה אחד להוצאה לאור של עבודה זו כהצהרה רשמית של הג'י.בּי.סי. על חובתי לחברי הג'י.בי.סי - לסבלנותם, לעזרתם, ומעל הכל על רוב ברכותיהם - לא אוכל לגמול.

אני מעוניין גם להודות לעזרה הקרובה אלי ביותר. החניכה שלי שְׂרַדְדְהָא דֵוִי דָאסִי העניקה ארגון מתמשך ותמיכה טכנית למאמץ זה, כמו גם סיוע עריכה באופן שיתופי ועצה. אשתי סַוּדָאמַנִּי דֵוִי דָאסּי הייתה אף היא קוראת פעילה ומבקרת של העבודה בהמשכה, כמו גם ספקית בלתי-נלאית של תמיכה וסיוע לחיים. אני אדם קשה לטיפול, אמנם היא עשתה זאת בכל-זאת.

משרתכם בשירות שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה,
רַוִינְדְרַה סְוַרֻוּפַּה דָאסַה
פילדלפיה, פנסילבניה
דצמבר, 2013


המעמד של שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה - טקסט

פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של אִיסְקּוֹן

שרילה פרבהופאדה הראה עמדה נחרצת שמעמדו כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של אִיסְקּוֹן יהיה תמיד מוכר. הוא פרש את חסותו כך שבכל אחד מן הספרים דף הכותרת והשער יציגו את שמו המלא, "חסדו השמיימי א. צ'. בְּהַקְתיוֵדָאנְתַה סְוָאמִי פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה," עם "מייסד-אאצ'אריה של החברה הבינלאומית לתודעת קְרּישְׁנַּה" מיד תחתיו. בדומה לכך, הוא הורה ש"מייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה: חסדו השמיימי א.צ'. בְּהַקְתיוֵדָאנְתַה סְוָאמִי פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה" יופיע ישירות תחת "החברה הבינלאומית לתודעת קְרּישְׁנַּה" בכל מסמכי איסקון הרשמיים, המכתבים, ההוצאה לאור והחותמות. באלו ובדרכים אחרות על הקשר האישי, האינטימי של שרילה פרבהופאדה עם אִיסְקּוֹן להיות תמיד מכובד.

כמייסד-אאצ'אריה שרילה פרבהופאדה מחזיק מעמד ייחודי בְּאִיסְקּוֹן. אנו צריכים להבין זאת לעומק. כאאצ'אריה, מופת התנהגותו האישית הוא הדוגמא והנורמה לכל דבקי איסקון. כמייסד, הרמה האישית שלו ועקרונותיו בפעולה, הרוח המסוימת או "מצב-הרוח", לוקחים צורה חברתית בארגון שיצר. כל חבר/ה פרטי/ת מפנים/ה רוח זו, ומשלב/ת אותה לתוך אישיותו או אישיותה. רוח זו עוברת כחוט השני בארגון כתמצית התרבות שלו, ואילו החברים נעשים להתגלמותה הנחזית בעולם.

אנו יראים ולמדים מֶאָאצָ'ארְְיוֹת גדולות רבות בשורה שלנו, ועם זאת כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של אִיסְקּוֹן, שרילה פרבהופאדה נעשה ייחודי ביניהם עבורנו. באיסקון, פרבהופאדה עצמו נשאר נוכח, דור אחר דור, כְּשִׂיקְשָׁא-גוּרוּ יחידי ומרכזי הבולט בחיים של כל דבק איסקון - הדרכה נצחית, ופעילה פנימה ונוכחות מכוונת. הוא איפוא הנשמה של איסקון. ככזה, שרילה פרבהופאדה עצמו ממשיך לפעול בצורה יעילה ומוכחת בעולם הזה כל עוד איסקון ממשיכה כביטוי הקוהרנטי וכלי השרת המאוחד בידי רצונו. בדרך זו שרילה פרבהופאדה נשאר הנשמה של אִיסְקּוֹן, ואיסקון גופו.

סיבות לייסוד פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה את אִיסְקּוֹן

כאשר שרילה פרבהופאדה ביסס בהצלחה את התנועה של הריבון צַ'יְתַנְיַה כמשימת הזמנה והסברה עולמית, הוא קיבל את ההחלטה רבת-המשקל ליצור מוסד חדש, החברה הבינלאומית לתודעת קרישנה, עמו כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה. הוא עשה זאת על בסיס הידע והניסיון שלו. תמצית הידע הזה הוא שאב מן המורה הרוחני שלו. לרוע המזל, אחרי עזיבת הגוּרוּ מַהָארָאגַ'ה של שרילה פרבהופאדה, הידע והניסיון חדלו במידה רבה להתבטא במוסד - אך המקוטע - של הגורו שלו. כתוצאה, פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה ייסד ארגון חדש, שכשלם ובכל חלק שלו, יגלם ויפתח ידע וניסיון אלה - תובנות המביאות לידי מימוש כמחויבות בלתי-נדלית, שאינה תועה להעניק אהבת אלוהים טהורה לאנושות הסובלת בכל מקום.

המוסד שיכול היה לפעול על מחויבות זו בכוח מאוחד על גבי נתחים רחבים של חלל וזמן זקוק לצורה ייחודית. שְׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי גוֹסְוָאמִי לפיכך, קרא לארגון בו הסמכות העליונה לא תשכון באדם שהוא אָאצָ'ארְיַה שולטת יחידה אלא דווקא גוף של מנהלים, לו קרא "ועד הגוף המנהל". הַגַּוּדְּיַה מַטְהַה נכשלה לממש מבנה זה, ועל כן, אמר פרבהופאדה, נעשתה "חסרת-ערך."

האתגר המרכזי שלנו

שרילה פרבהופאדה ביסס מבנה למען איסקון, השם את ועד הגוף המנהל במקום ב-1970 ומפקח על הרהט ההדרגתי והפיתוח. בציינו שהוא רצה בהיות "מאות ואלפים של מורים רוחניים" בקרב איסקון, הוא הסיק שמערכת יחסי הגורו והתלמיד תשתמר לנצח בתוככי המוסד המאוחד תחת הדרכת הג'י.בּי.סי. בארגון כזה, גורו רבים יכולים לפעול בכוח מתואם, משתפים פעולה עם מנהיגים אחרים ומנהלים בהווי של חברותא.

כל עוד שֶׁפְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה היה נוכח כַּאָאצָ'ארְיַה וְהַדִּיקְשָׁא-גוּרוּ היחיד, נשאר המבנה בעל כורחו בצורתו העוברית, ילד עודנו ברחם אימו, צורתו ותפקידו מכורח לא מפותחים. כל עוד היה נוכח פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה בעולם, מעצם טבע המצב, הג'י.בּי.סי בבירור לא יכול היה ליטול את תפקידו המלא בתור "סמכות ניהול עליונה," אילו פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה נשאר הַגּוּרוּ היחיד. לפיכך התוצר המלא של עבודתו של פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה היה צריך לחכות לזמנו כדי להתממש.

באופן דומה, השאיר שרילה פרבהופאדה לנו את המלאכה, לאחר עזיבתו, של הניסוח הרהוט והמלא לצורה ותפקידיה של איסקון לפעולה מוכחת ויעילה בעולם. אתגר אחד מרכזי הוא לשלב מערכת יחסי הגורו והתלמיד - הנושאת דרישה אשר במקומה משלה - לדבקות עמוקה ומחויבות לאיש שהוא הגורו - בתוך חברה גדולה שדורשת, במובן מסויים, נאמנות גבוהה יותר, וכוללנית. נאמנות זו היא הקולעת למטרה של המייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה שרילה פרבהופאדה, דבקות המוכחת בפועל בשיתוף פעולה אחד עם השני, בתוך המבנים שהותיר לנו, למלא את רצונו העמוק ביותר.

זה מעניין לציין ששתי תנועות אנטי-איסקון בולטות - לעתים קרובות הטוענות להיות "איסקון האמיתית" - נוצרו מדחייה בפרט של אחד או יותר מהרכיבים של השלם של פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה: מעמד "הַרּיתְויק" רוצה להיפטר מכל הגורו בפועל לטובת סמכות ג'י.בּי.סי מוסדית, ואילו ההולכים אחר סַנְנְיָאסִי אחד בולט או אחר רוצים לבטל את רעיון הג'י.בּי.סי בפועל ולסמוך על אָאצָ'ארְיַה כריזמטי, שליט אחד ויחיד.

איסקון צריכה לטפח את שני היסודות: נאמנות עמוקה ומגובשת לאִיסְקּוֹן ולג'י.בּי.סי, ואת מערכת היחסים העמוקה והמלאה בין גוּרוּ כִּפְרָטִים וְתלמידים באיסקון. אנו צריכים לתפוס כיצד אין סתירה ואין התנגשות. עלינו לתפוס כיצד הם מחזקים ותומכים אחד בשני.

מרכיב חיוני בביסוס תפיסה משולבת זו היא השגת הבנה עמוקה של מעמדו של שרילה פרבהופאדה והשמת הבנה זו לידי פעולה - כְּגָם גְ'נָֿאנַה וּויגְ'נָֿאנַה. כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה, שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה עצמו מסמל - ובמובן, הוא מהווה - את אחדות איסקון. לפיכך הוא צריך להפוך לנוכחות בלתי-נמנעת ומורגשת בחיי כל הדבקים, לא משנה מי עוד ישרת אותם כגורו דיקְשָׁא או שׂיקְשָׁא. גורו שעדיין מתממשים בעולם נוטים לעשות רושם חי יותר על עוקביהם מאשר אלו שעתה לא-ממומשים. מפני ששרילה פרבהופאדה האדם כעת לא-ממומש ככזה, אי-נוכחות הַוַּפּוּ צריכה לבוא לידי פיצוי בצורת הבנה מעמיקה-לעד של התגלמותו כְּוָאנּי (כפי שהוא בעצמו לימד).

נוכחות כזו צריכה להפוך מן השורש לחלק מן המרקם של איסקון, להיעשות לטעם החיוני של תרבותה, שנוכחותו לא תפחת אפילו כל אלה שידעו באופן אישי את שרילה פרבהופאדה ילכו בעקבותיו מעולם זה.

השלכות

יהיו לכך הרבה השגות-בפועל כאשר המעמד של שרילה פרבהופאדה כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה יילקח בפועל. ביניהן:

דור אחר דור יוכלו לקבל את החסד המיוחד שהוצע על ידי שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה. הנתיב חזרה הביתה לאלוהות שפתח יֵלֵך וִיצָּעֵד לרוב ועוד.

תוך אימוץ מקלט מלא בשרילה פרבהופאדה כגורו שִׂיקְשָׁא בצורת הַוָּאנּי שלו, כל המורים באיסקון, בשלבים שונים של התקדמות, יוכלו באופן אותנטי למסור את שרילה פרבהופאדה על מדרשו האמיתי, וכך לתת הנחיה ראויה, מקלט והגנה לכל.

הנוכחות הפעילה של שרילה פרבהופאדה תבטיח את האחדות והשלמות של איסקון.

המדרשים של איסקון יישארו עקביים לאורך חלל וזמן.

הידע והניסיון של שרילה פרבהופאדה - המעניקים לו את האון המסויים להפצת תודעת קְרּישְׁנַּה - לא זו בלבד שישתמרו אלא יתפתחו.

ספריו יישארו מרכזיים לנו, שכן הם מכילים תובנות והכוונות הממתינות לפיתוח עתידי לממשן.

עיניו של שרילה פרבהופאדה יישארו תמיד העדשות דרכן כל הדורות הבאים רואים את אָאצָ'ארְיוֹת המורשת שלנו.

המעמד של שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה - טקסט עם הערות

פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של אִיסְקּוֹן

שרילה פרבהופאדה הראה עמדה נחרצת שמעמדו כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של אִיסְקּוֹן יהיה תמיד מוכר. הוא פרש את חסותו כך שבכל אחד מן הספרים דף הכותרת והשער יציגו את שמו המלא, "חסדו השמיימי א. צ'. בְּהַקְתיוֵדָאנְתַה סְוָאמִי פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה," עם "מייסד-אאצ'אריה של החברה הבינלאומית לתודעת קְרּישְׁנַּה" מיד תחתיו. בדומה לכך, הוא הורה ש"מייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה: חסדו השמיימי א.צ'. בְּהַקְתיוֵדָאנְתַה סְוָאמִי פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה" יופיע ישירות תחת "החברה הבינלאומית לתודעת קְרּישְׁנַּה" בכל מסמכי איסקון הרשמיים, המכתבים, ההוצאה לאור והחותמות. באלו ובדרכים אחרות על הקשר האישי, האינטימי של שרילה פרבהופאדה עם אִיסְקּוֹן להיות תמיד מכובד.

העמדה הנחרצת של שרילה פרבהופאדה. ב-1970, כתבים מסויימים מאת שרילה פרבהופאדה שהופקו על ידי אִיסְקּוֹן ההוצאה-לאור הציגו את שם המחבר בהיעדר התארים המכבדים כנהוג ועם מעמדו בְּאִיסְקּוֹן נכתב בשם "אָאצָ'ארְיַה" במקום "מייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה." מכאן, גילה פרבהופאדה מאמץ מתואם ובדרכו לחתור תחת מעמדו.

סַתְסְוַרֻוּפַּה דָאסַה גוֹסְוָאמִי משחזר תקרית זו בְּשְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה-לִילָאמְרּיתַה (4.93):

כאשר ההוצאה-לאור של אִיסְקּוֹן בְּבוסטון הדפיסה את שמו של פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה על ספר חדש, הוא נעשה מוטרד באופן עמוק.

הפרק הקטן בכריכה רקה מן הַקָּנְטוֹ השני של הַשְּׂרִימַד-בְּהָאגַוַתַם נשא את שמו על השער כפשוט א.צ'. בְּהַקְתיוֵדָאנְתַה. מה שהושמט היה "חסדו השמיימי" כנהוג ואף "סְוָאמִי פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה". שמו של שרילה פרבהופאדה עמד כמעט מרושש ממשמעות רוחנית. כתב נוסף של אִיסְקּוֹן הוצאה לאור תיאר את פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה כָּאָאצָ'ארְיַה של אִיסְקּוֹן, על אף שֶׁפְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה חזר והדגיש שהוא המייסד-הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה. היו מכבר אָאצָ'ארְיוֹת רבות, או מורים רוחניים, ויהיו כן עוד רבים; אמנם חסדו השמיימי א.צ'. בְּהַקְתיוֵדָאנְתַה סְוָאמִי פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה היה המייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה היחיד של החברה הבינלאומית לתודעת קְרּישְׁנַּה.

כאילו לא די, כאשר פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה פתח את פרק הַבְּהָאגַוַתַם החדש, הכריכה התפרקה והדפים נפלו החוצה. מבטו של פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה רשף החוצה.

בְּרָאהְמַנַנְדַה מדבר מזכרונו האישי של התקרית הזאת בסדרת הסרטונים הבאה של שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה (יולי-אוגוסט 1970, לוס אנג'לס):

בזמן ההוא, היה מה שֶפְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה החשיב למזעור המורה הרוחני בעיני המנהיגים, בעיקר ממני. הייתי הנגוע ביותר בכך, לזאת הייתי קורא קנאה במורה הרוחני. בביקור זה ללוס אנג'לה, דברים השתבשו — החל בהוצאה לאור אִיסְקּוֹן, שהייתה באחריותי. הספרים הודפסו, ואילו התואר של פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה לא הופיע באופן הראוי. היה זה רק א.צ' בְּהַקְתיוֵדָאנְתַה סְוָאמִי, כאשר "חסדו השמיימי" נשאר בחוץ. אף ספר אחד, מבין פרקי הַבְּהָאגַוַתַם - עליו הופיע "א.צ' בְּהַקְתיוֵדָאנְתַה" - כלום גם המילה "סְוָאמִי" ניטלה ממנו. הצגתי בפני פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה ספר מהוצאה-לאור אִיסְקּוֹן בְּבוסטון שהדפסנו, וכאשר פתח את הספר אצה לה ופקעה הכריכה. כל זאת היה במקדש בשעה שהוצגה זאת באופן רשמי.

שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה חשד בזאת ומכאן תקריות לא-מכבדות נוספות נחשדו בחזקת "זיהום חתרני" המתפשט לו מהודו (שׂ.פּ.ל. 4:95-94):

כל עוד היו הסטיות מן-הכלל ומשקלן שְׁעוּנִים בכובד על שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה, הוא למד על דברים מוזרים שתלמידיו בהודו כתבו במכתביהם, ונעשה מוטרד אף יותר. מכתב אחד לדבקים באמריקה דווח שאחיו הרוחניים של פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה בהודו התנגדו לתואר פרבהופאדה. לִדברם, רק בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סְוָאמִי יקרא פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה...

על אף שלעיתים חסרי-דעת, תלמידיו, הוא ידע, אינם זדוניים בכוונות. אמנם מכתבים אלה מהודו נשאו מחלה רוחנית שנישאה מפי מספר מאחיו הרוחניים של פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה לתלמידיו שם...

פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה היה רגיש לְכֹל איוּם על אִיסְקּוֹן... אמנם כעת כמה הערות שדוברו בחוסר-אחריות בהודו החלישו את אמונתם של כמה מתלמידיו. ייתכן וזיהום חתרני זה שעתה התפשט זירז את המחדלים בְּאִיסְקּוֹן הוצאה-לאור ואף את הכשלים בלוס אנג'לס.

להבא, נטל על עצמו שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה נדר להבטיח שאחר עמדותיו המבוססות לזיהוי מעמדו יעקבו בקפידה. אנו רואים עמדה נחרצת זו מבוטאת באופן ישיר במכתביו:

טוב הדבר עד מאוד שכבר פתחתם את המרכז ורשמתם את החברה. אינה התחלה זו אלא לטובה. דבר אחד, לגבי הרשמה, הוא שהנוהג הוא לשמור את שמו של המייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה חסדו השמיימי א.צ'. בְּהַקְתיוֵדָאנְתַה סְוָאמִי פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה על כל מסמכי הרישום, כמו גם ניירות ההתכתבות, ספרים ופרסומים. אז אני רואה את השם שם על ראש המכתב של סוּבַּלַדַס סְוָאמִי, כלומר שזה בסדר גמור. בדרך זו יש לעשות כך.[1] אז אתם יכולים להתקדם ולרשום את החברה שלנו שם ולנקוט את כל הצעדים הראויים והנחוצים. לפני שמתרחש סיומה של ההרשמה אבקש מכם לשלוח לי עותק אחד של חוּקָת החברה שלנו על מנת שאוכל לאשר אותה סופית. שמי צריך להיות שם כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה, א.צ'. בְּהַקְתיוֵדָאנְתַה סְוָאמִי. עליי להיות בעל סמכות מלאה בכל העניינים.

אנו יכולים לראות, מכאן, איך שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה רצה בפרט שמעמדו בְּאִיסְקּוֹן יירשם תמיד בתואר המדויק "מייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה." בהקשר מסוים זה, פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה שפט את הכינוי "אָאצָ'ארְיַה", המופיע לבדו, כבלתי-מספיק ואף פוגע. הוא עמד בשמו של השימוש בצירוף זה שחלקו נאמר בסנסקריט. תואר זה "מייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה" הוא שטומן בחובו את הקשר האינטימי יוצא-הדופן השורה בין שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה וְאִיסְקּוֹן.

כמייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה מחזיק במעמד ייחודי בְּאִיסְקּוֹן. עלינו להבין זאת לעומק. כָּאָאצָ'ארְיַה, דוגמתו האישית למופת היא המודל-לחיקוי והנורמה עבור כל דבקי אִיסְקּוֹן. כמייסד, הסטנדרטים האישיים שלו ועקרונות הפעולה, רוחו המסויימת או "מצב הרוח", לוקחים צורה ואופן חברתיים בארגון שהוא יצר. כל חבר/ה אינדיוידואלי/ת מפנים/ה רוח זו, בשעה שהו/יא משלב/ת אותה לתוך בסיס עצמיותו/ה. רוחו שורה במוסד כתמצית התרבותית שלו, בזמן שהחברים נעשים להתגלמותו הנראית בעולם.

אָאצָ'ארְיַה, או במילים של פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה, "מורה טרנסצנדנטלי של המדע הרוחני",[2] משתייך לזן שונה מן האקדמאי המודרני שלכם. המורה הטרנסצנדנטלי לוקח אחריות על התלמידים ואחרי שהוא חונך אותם ללימודיהם הקדושים, מדריך אותם לעומק בידע וֵדי ומאמן אותם בהרגלים ובתקנות מתבקשות.

אָאצָ'אריה בא מֶאָאצָ'ארַה, מילה הבאה לתאר את חוקי הַשָּׂאסְתְרַה להתנהלות בעולם כמו גם את המעשה בהתנהלותו. אאצ'אריה מלמד התנהלות כזו לא רק ע"פ מרשם אלא גם ע"י דוגמא אישית. הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה הוא מופת. פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה כותב, "אאצ'אריה הוא מורה אידאלי שיודע את משמעות הכתובים, מתנהג בדיוק לפי מסקנותיהם ומלמד את התלמידים שלו לאמץ כללים אלה."[3] לימוד כזה מביט הרחק מעבר לתיאוריה; הוא מערב את התפתחות האופי על פי לתלמידים העושים עצמם בהתאם לאידאל שלפניהם באדם שהוא האאצ'אריה.

על הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה להישאר נאמן לָאָאצָ'ארְיוֹת הקודמים. "אדם לא יכול להיות אָאצָ'ארְיַה (מורה רוחני) מבלי ללכת בקפדנות בעקבות שושלת הָאָאצָ'ארְיוֹת. מי שהוא למעשה רציני באשר להתקדמות בשירות מסור - עליו לִרְצוֹת אך ורק לְרַצּוֹת את הָאָאצָ'ארְיוֹת הקודמים."[4] באותו הזמן, על הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה לשלב נאמנות מעמיקה ומופלאה זאת עם יכולת להמציא בגמישות הוראות המתאימות לקהילות מגוונות של תלמידים. "לכל אאצ'אריה יש אמצעים מסוימים לקידום תנועתו הרוחנית," פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה כותב. "אאצ'אריה צריך להמציא אמצעים לפיהם אנשים יוכלו בדרך זו או אחרת לבוא לתודעת קְרּישְׁנַּה."[5] עם נסיונו האישי בראשו, הוא כותב:

על המורה (אָאצָ'ארְיַה) להתחשב בזמן, במועמד ובמדינה. עליו להימנע מעקרון הַנייַמָאגְרַהַה - הווה אומר, עליו להימנע מלנסות לעשות את הבלתי-אפשרי. מה שאפשרי במדינה אחת עלול לא להיות באחרת. החובה של הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה היא לקבל את מהות השירות המסור. עשוי להיות שינוי קטן פה ושם עד כמה שזה נוגע ליוּקְתַה-וַיְרָאגְיַה (פרישות לשמה).[6]

היכולת להישאר נאמנים למסורת בקפדנות ובו בזמן נכונים להתאים את המסורת הזו לקהלים ומצבים משתנים היא, מסביר פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה, סימן לידע מעשי.

הבנה מעשית אישית לא אומרת שעל אדם, מתוך יהירות, לנסות באמצעות למדנותו לעקוף בניסיונו את הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה הקודם. עליו להיות ניחן בבטחון מלא באאצ'אריה הקודם, ובאותו הזמן עליו מעשית להבין את הנושא באופן נחמד ביותר המאפשר לו להציג את העניין עבור הנסיבות המתאימות באופן הולם. יש להתאים למען המטרה המקורית של הטקסט. משמעות חשוכה אין לנסות לשאוב ולדלות ממנו, אמנם עליו להיות מוצג באופן מעניין עבור הבנת הקהל. זה נקרא הבנה מעשית.[7]

הבנה מעשית נותנת לאאצ'אריה את "האמצעים המתאימים לקידום תנועתו הרוחנית."

אָאצָ'ארְיַה, לכן, נמצא בבעלות האמצעים להביא תלמידים קשובים לקרבתו (אוּפַּנִיתי) ובכך להחדיר ולהחיות אותם ברוחו עצמו, להעצים אותם בידע ובהבנה מעשית. הם נעשים נציגים אישיים שלו, יש להוסיף, אלו היכולים, במובן הראשיתי של המילה, לייצג מחדש - להציג מן ההתחלה בשנית - את הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה לאחרים.

"המייסד-הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה" - צירוף תואר זה שחציו בסנסקריט - הוא המונח שהציע וביקש שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה לציין את מעמדו ביחס לְאִיסְקּוֹן. ראינו שבהקשר זה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה שפט את התואר "אָאצָ'ארְיַה", כלשעצמו, כלא רק בלתי-ראוי אלא אף פוגע. אמנם אנו יודעים שהמילה "אָאצָ'ארְיַה" לבדה משמשת באופן מסורתי כתואר כבוד לראש מכובד של מוסד רוחני. כך, עלינו להסיק שמי שנושא את התואר "מייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה" קיבל הכרה רבת-משקל בהשוואה, כזו הקוראת להערכה מסוימת. שרילה פרבהופאדה הוא הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה הראשון בשושלת שלנו שעליו מונח (ומעבר לכך, דורש לזאת) התואר הרשמי. בהנחה ואדם יכול לצפות למצוא שֶׁשְּרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי אולי זכה להכרה רשמית בתואר זה, נוהג זה אינו ידוע או רשום.

כתב-העת של הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה בשפה האנגלית "המפייס" (The Harmonist)[8] מסגיר שבשנים מוקדמות יותר בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה נוטה להיות מוכר בשני תארים שונים. מחד, הוא "נשיא שְׂרִי וישְְׂוַוַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאגַ'ה שַׂבְּהָא"; ומאידך, הוא "האאצ'אריה", מה שמופיע לבדו או כחלק מצירוף רחב יותר, כְּבָאָאצָ'ארְיַה "של קהילת הַגַּוּדִּיַה", של "קהילת הַמַדְהְוַה-גַּוּדִּיַה", של "הַגַּוּדִּיַה וַיְשְׁנַּוים", וכיוצא בזה. לעתים שני התארים באים יחדיו ועם זאת עצמאיים, כשם שרואים בדוגמאות כגון: "הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה (המשיח) של העידן הנוכחי ומי שעתה הינו הנשיא של וישְׂוַה וַיְשְׁנַּוַה רַג' שַׂבְּהָא ההיסטורית" (המפייס 28.2:58).10 [9] קשורה בקשרים הדוקים עם הַוּישְׂוַה-וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאגַ'ה שַׂבְּהָא המחודשת רשמית (שפעלה תחת מועצה של שלושה חניכים מובילים), היתה ההתאגדות המתרחבת-לעד של המקדשים - מרכזי נזירות לאימון, לימוד, הזמנה והסברה - שבאו להיקרא "הגַּוַּדִּיַה-מַטְהַה", ובתדירות גוברת, "משימת הַגַּוּדִיַה".[10] באותו הזמן, הכינויים "אאצ'אריה" ו"נשיא" שודכו יחדיו לצורת צירוף שנעשה בהדרגה התואר התקני של בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה: "נשיא-אָאצָ'ארְיַה". צירוף תואר זה שימש בהקשרו עם גם "שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה-וַיְשְׁנַּוַרָאגַ'ה שַׂבְּהָא" ו-"הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה" (או וריאציות כגון "משימת הַגַּוּדִּיַה" ו-"המשימה"). יתרה מזאת, התואר "נשיא-אאצ'אריה", כמו התואר "אָאצָ'ארְיַה", המופיע לעתים קרובות כתואר בפני-עצמו עבור בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה.[11] מאידך זאת, השימוש בשם "מייסד" בתיאור בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה הינו נדיר ביותר. הפעם הבולטת בו נעשה היא במחוות הַוְּיָאסַה-פּוּגַ'ה ע"י "אֵבְּהֵי צַ'רַן דָאס, לָחֲבֵרִים, שְׂרִי גַוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה, בּוֹמְבֵּיי" בו מתייחס שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה לִבְהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי כ-"אָאצָ'ארְיַדֵוַה מורה-העולם, שהוא מייסד משימת הַגַּוּדִּיַה הזו ונשיא הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה של שְׂרִי שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה וַיְשְּׁנַבּ רָאג'-שַׂבְּהָא: אני מתכוון לאדון הרוחני הנצחי שלי..." (המפייס 32:291).[12]

על אף שאיננו מוצאים את "המייסד-הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה" בשימוש כתואר עבור בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה, תואר כבוד זה ולא אחר עושה הופעה בולטת במפורסם מבין כתבי הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה בשפה האנגלית: שְׂרִי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה, ע"י נישׂיקָאנְתַה סָאנְיָאל.

כבר ציינו שב-1927 סַגְ'גַ'נַה-תוֹשַׁנִי שינתה את צורתה לביטאון בשפה-האנגלית "המפייס" על מנת לשדר תודעת קְרּישְׁנַּה לעולם מעבר להודו - ניסיון הכנה לשליחתם לבסוף של "מסבירים ומזמינים למשימה" אל חופי נכר ב-1933 - "הכתר שבתהילה", מעיר בְּהַקְתי ויקָאשַׂה סְוָאמִי, "של כל פעולות הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה דאז" (ש.בּ.ו 1:108). לשלוח מסבירים ומזמינים אלו מצויידים היטב במשימתם, היה להכין קודם כל כְּתָב לשימושם, כזה שיעביר "את המסר של המשימה" באופן צלול דיו, שלם, ומחוכם על מנת לקלוע לטעם בני-התרבות של אומות מתקדמות. כְּתָב זה היה שְׂרִי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה.[13] המחבר שלו, נישׂיקָאנְתַה סָאנְיָאל, פרופסור להיסטוריה במכללת רֵיוֶונְשׁוֹ בְּקוּתָּאק, נשא את שם החניכה נָארָאיַנַה דָאסַה ואת התואר בְּהַקְתי סוּדְהָאקַרַה מִשְּׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה. הגורו ותלמידו נהגו לעבוד בשיתוף פעולה קרוב על מיזמי ספרות בשפה האנגלית, ומקרה זה לא יוצא דופן.[14] בהקתי ויקאשה סואמי מתייחס לכך שֶׁבְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה בחר לשהות בתחנת הגבעה נילְגירי אוּתָקָמוּנד למשך חודשיים בקיץ 1932 כדי להתרכז בעריכה מחדש של שְׂרי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה (ש.בּ.ו 1:243). למראית עין, המסבירים והמזמינים לא יכלו לפתוח במשימתם למערב עד שהיה להם את הספר ביד (ש.בּ.ו 2:27):

כאשר המהדורה האנגלית של שְׂרִי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה מאת פרופסור סָאנְיָאל פורסמה בְּגַוּרַה-פֻּוּרְנּימָא 1933, העריך שְׂרִילַה בְּהַקתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי שהזמן בא להפצת המסר של מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ באירופה. וב-10 באפריל חלומו התגשם לבסוף כאשר הפליגו שְׂרִימַד בְּהַקְתי פְּרַדִיפַּה תירְתְהַה מַהָארָאגַ'ה, שְׂרִימַד בְּהַקְתי הְרּידַיַה בּוֹן מַהָארָאגַ'ה, וְסַמְּוידָאנַנְדַה פְּרַבְּהוּ מִבּוֹמְבֵּיי לְלוֹנְדוֹן.

שלושים וחמש שנה מאוחר יותר, ב-14 במרץ, 1967, שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה כתב מסן פרנסיסקו לִבְרַהְמָאנַנְדַה דָאסַה בניו יורק בשביל להציע את אישורו של הַכְּתָב:

אני שמח לגלות שדונלד רכש את הספר מאת פרופ' סָאנְיָאל, קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה. הפרופ' המנוח נ.ק. סָאנְיָאל היה אחי הרוחני וספרו קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה מאושר וסמכותי. שמרו עליו בזהירות ונוכל לפרסמו ב"לשוב הביתה לאלוהות" מאמרים מן הספר. זה יעזור לנו במידה רבה מפני שמורי הרוחני נתן את אישורו לספר הזה. שמרו נא עליו בזהירות וכשאחזור אערוב לכך. (670314 - מכתב לברהמאננדה נכתב מסן פרנסיסקו)

זה בדפים של שְׂרִי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה שתואר הכלאיים שחציו בסנסקריט "המייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה" מקבל את הופעתו הראשונה, תחילה בתוכן העניינים:

פרק שביעי - המייסדים-הָאָאצָ'ארְיוֹת
המערכות של שְׂרִי וישְׁנּוּסְוָאמִי, שְׂרִי נימְבַּדיתְיַה, שְׂרִי רָאמַנוּגַ'ה וּשְׂרִי מַדְהְוַה עומדות בסימן חידושו של הַוַּיְשְׁנַּויזְם אחריו ניתן לעקוב עד לתעודות פרה-היסטוריות. הן מגלמות את הסגידה רבת-הַיִרְאָה של וישְׁנּוּ. ערכן המשני הוא היותן מחאה בלתי-מתפשרת נגד הדעות של מנשרים ספקולטיביים. הסינתזה הרוחנית שלהם, חרף צלילותה, איננה שלמה.

המחבר מניע קדימה התסכלות פותחת על מסלול הזריחה והשקיעה של הרוחניות האנושית הבאה להתמקד בארבע שושלות המורים ההיסטוריות של הַוַּיְשְׁנַּויזְם. הריבון בעצמו חונך סַמְּפְּרַדָאיוֹת אלה באמצעות השראה ממי שפרופסור סָאנְיָאל מתייחס כאל "המורים הפרה-היסטוריים המקוריים". הוא מסביר:

ארבע הקהילות (סַמְּפְּרַדָאיוֹת) של עידן הברזל קשורות לימי קדם דרך הכרתם בסמכות-העל של המורים הקדומים הנצחייים, הווה אומר, לַקְשְׁמִי, בְּרַהְמָא, רוּדְרַה וארבעת הסַנוֹת (צְ'הַתוּהְסַנַהּ), בהתאמה. ארבעת המייסדים-אָאצָ'ארְיוֹת של עידן הברזל הודו בדבקותם לראיית המורים המקוריים האלה של הדת.

אנו רואים, איפוא, שבכל סַמְּפְּרַדָאיַה מבחינים בשני חברים מעל כל השאר למען ההשפעה המעצבת שלהם על יורשיהם. זה הראשון בכל צמד הוא אחד מן "המורים הקדומים הנצחיים" שנעשה "המורה הפרה-היסטורי המקורי" עבור הַסַּמְּפְּרַדָאיַה; החבר השני הוא "המייסד-הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה", מורה רוחני פרדיגמטי המחיה ומעצב מחדש את הקהילה בְּקַלי-יוּגַה, מה שמעניק לה סגנון חשיבה ופעולה ייחודי ומובחן משלה.[15] התואר "המייסד-הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה", כפי שהשתמש בו נישׂיקָאנְתַה סָאנְיָאל, מוגבל לארבע פֶּרְסוֹנוֹת היסטוריות אלה, שאחרת נקראים לעתים קרובות "אָאצָ'ארְיוֹת-הַסַּמְּפְּרַדָאיַה".[16] התואר "המייסד-הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה" היה סימן ההיכר המובהק שלהם. לאור זאת, זה מובן שֶׁשְׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה לא נשא תואר זה בעצמו. נובע מכך, הרי זה יוצא דופן למצוא בדפים של המפייס את המילים "מייסד אָאצָ'ארְיַה" מופיעות, בצורה נקיה מרבב אך בוטחת, על מנת להתייחס לנשיא מוסד הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה בעצמו. הצירוף, בו השתמשו, עולה מתוך מאמר חשוב, ששמו "הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה", שראה אור בשלושה חלקים בהדרגה החל בגיליון אוקטובר 1930 של המפייס.[17] פרסומו איפוא חפף לפתיחה החגיגית בנובמבר של המקדש המפואר שהושלם זה-מכבר הנקרא "שְׂרִי גַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה" בְּבָאג-בָּזָר, כַּלְכּוּתָה. מוסד זה, על הודו הטרי, הוא מה שמיוחס אליו בכותרת המאמר. פרסום ראשון של "הגודיה מטהה" מהווה את החלק המוביל של גליון אוקטובר, ואילו דף הכריכה נושא תצלום של גַ'גַדְבַּנְדְהוּ בְּהַקְתי רַנְֿגַ'נַה,[18] שיזם והדריך את בניית המקדש. מאמר המפייס לא נשא את שם המחבר, מנהג שהעניק לחיבורים אלו חותם של אישור עריכה חזק (אם לא בעלות ישירה).[19] בעוד הוא חוגג את הצעד כבד-המשקל של האגודה לקראת הזמנה והסברה עולמית, לוקח גם המפייס את ההזדמנות לסבר באופן יסודי את המבנה הרוחני (ועד מידה אזוטרי) והמטרה של ארגונו המתרחב. "הגודיה מטהה" מציג מאמר החלטי בָּאֶקְלֶזְיוֹלוֹגְיָה הַגַּוּדִּיַה וַיְשְׁנַּוית.[20]

המאמר יוצר מראש מטאפורה שולטת[21] בה נעזרים חברי הקהילה על מנת להבין את הצורה והפעילות של מוסד הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה שלהם: זו של עץ הגדל בחוסנו שאיבריו וענפיו המשגשגים מתפשטים לכסות את העולם. מטאפורה זו, כאמור, גזורה מן הפרק התשיעי של שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה-צַ'ריתָאמְרּיתַה, אָאדִי-לִילָא, "עץ הרצון של שירות מסור". שם מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ מתואר כגנן המביא לכדור-הארץ עץ משאלה זה, הקרוי בְּהַקְתי-קַלְפַּה-תַרוּ, זורע את הזרע באדמת נַוַדְוִיפַּה, ומטפח את הצמח, הגדל להעניק את הפרי - קְרּישְׁנה פְּרֵמַה לכל בכל מקום. מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ אינו הגנן בלבד, אלא גם העץ עצמו (קְרּישְׁנַּה-פְּרֵמָאמַרַה-תַרוּהּ סְוַיַם) כמו גם הנהנה והמפיץ את פִּרְיוֹ.

מוסד הַגַּוּדִּיַה מטהה הוא התממשות של עץ זה. זרעו - כך הבינו החברים - נשתל והושקה בְּנַוַדְוִיפַּה, מקום הלידה של מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ, בידי הזורע שְׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה, אשר פרש למקום קדוש זה מ-1905 עד 1914, בזמרו 192 סיבובים ליום, וזאת על מנת למלא נדר לזמר מיליארד שמות. חלק ניכר מִיַּגְּ'נַֿה זו ביצע הוא בבקתה שבנה על אדמת רכוש בה, ב-27 במרץ, 1918, הוא לקח על עצמו סַנְנְיָאסַה. "ביום בו לקח סַנְנְיָאסַה", כותב בהקתי ויקָאשַׂה סְוָאמִי, "שְׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי גם הקים את שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַטְהַה במאיאפור, ומגלה לפני העיניים שירות לצלמי שְׂרִי שְׂרִי גָאנְדְהַרְויקָא-גירידְהָארִי לצד צלם הריבון צַ'יְתַנְיַה לפניו ביצע נדרו לזמר את מיליארד השמות".[22] בדרך זו, הכה עץ תנועת הַגַּוּדִּיַה שורש באדמה קדושה, ומהר החל לגדול לכל עבר, באופן הבולט ביותר בצורת שְׂרִי גַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה, שנוסדה ב-1920 ע"י בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה בדרך צומת אוּלְתָדִינְגי 1, כלכותה.[23]

דימוי זה של המוסד מוצג למן הגליון הראשון של המפייס (יוני, 1927). "הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה: מסר ופעילויות", הפותח ברהיטות רטורית הנותנת קול לרוח הצמיחה הדינמית והחיה, בתיאור הגודיה מטהה עם הדימוי של עץ - שורשו בְּמָאיָאפּוּרַה ("אדמת ההתגלות" של מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ), מסתעף לְכַלְכּוּתַה, ומשם לכל רחבי הודו.

בחסד הריבון של הגודיות מסר הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה נכון להיום אינו בלתי-ידוע לאיש מכל גַוּדַה דֶש - ולא רק בְּגַוּדַה דֶש, אלא על נַיְמישַׂרַנְּיַה, אַיוֹדְהְיַה, פְּרַיַג, קַשׂי, שְרִי בְּרינְדַבַּן, מַטְהוּרַה בצד אחד וגם על דַקְשׁינַתְיַה (דרום הודו) ובכל מקום ברחבי מסכתות אוֹרִיסַּה בצד השני, כך אישש זאת היטב את מסר הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה, הענף העיקרי של שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַטְהַה שהוא השורש שתול באדמת התגלות שְׂרִימַן מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ, - שְׂרִי מָאיָאפּוּר נַבַּדְוִיפַּה דְהַמַה. ברחבי גַוּדַמַנְדַלַה, קְשֵׁתְרַמַנְדַלַה וּבְרַגַ'מַנְדַלַה מסר הַגַּוּדִּיַה התפשט והגיע.

מן רגע הפתיחה באוקטובר 1930 של הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה המועברת לְבָאג-בַּזַר - שנבנתה במהירות כמפקדה להפצה עולמית של גַוּרַה-וָאנִי[24] - המפייס של אותו חודש פתח בהבהרה של משמעות האירוע העמוקה (המפייס 28.5:129):

הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה היא התגלמות השירות הגבוה ביותר לִשְׂרִי שְׂרִי רָאדְהָא-גוֹוינְדַה שנעשתה למציאות בסביבה העירונית בת-זמננו בחסדו של הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה

זו התגלמות השירות האידאלית באינדיוידואל יחיד שאינו משתייך לגיל כזה או אחר, אף לא לעולם הזה. על ידי ... המשאלה המסתפקת-בעצמה של אינדיוידואל יחיד זה אידאל השירות לִשְׂרִי שְׂרִי רָאדְהָאגוֹוינְדַה התממש בעיר הסואנת ביותר במדינה זו בצורת מוסד לתרגול והפצה של השירות המושלם ביותר לריבון העליון

מוסד זה ... חב את קיומו בבחינת יוזמה וגם צמיחה לחסדו השמיימי פרמהמסה שְׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי גוֹסְוָאמִי מַהָארָאג' ...

כך, הגודיה מטהה נועדה להופיע ולשגשג בחסדו של הָאָאצָ'ארְיַה. הנה מקורה (המפייס 28.5:130):

Thus, the Gauḍīya Maṭha is made to appear and to flourish by the grace of the Ācārya. Here is its provenance (Harm. 28.5:130):

The Gaudiya Math [in Calcutta] is the principle branch of Sri Chaitanya Math of Sridham Mayapur. The distinction between the Gaudiya Math and Sri Chaitanya Math is all analogous to that between one lamp lighted by another. The Gaudiya Math is the expansion of the Chaitanya Math in a visible form into the heart of the world. Sri Chaitanya Math is eternally located as the original source even when it is manifested to the view of the people of this world, in the transcendental environment of the eternal Abode of the Divinity. The activities of the Gaudiya Math and of the other sister branch Maths are, however, essentially identical with those of Sri Chaitanya Math and are categorically different from the ordinary activities of this world.

Here, use of the lamp-analogy is telling. Taken from Śrī Brahmasaṁhitā 4.46, where it elucidated the relation between Lord Kṛṣṇa and his expansion, the analogy as used here implies that the institution itself is transcendent and has the same attribute as the Lord Himself, whose multiple expansions and sub-expansions are nondifferent from Him. Hence, the Gauḍīya Maṭha and other branch Maṭhas are spiritually identical with the parent Maṭha in Māyāpura and with each other as well.

And now (Harm. 28.5:131):

The Gaudiya Math is also identical with its founder Acharyya. The associates, followers and abode of His Divine Grace are limbs of himself. None of them claim to be anything but a fully subordinate limb of this single individual. This unconditional, causeless, spontaneous submission to the Head, is found to be not only compatible with, but absolutely necessary for the fullest freedom of initiative of the subordinate limbs.

Throughout this article, Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura is denoted "the Acharyya," but in this one place, expounding upon the nature of his spiritual relationship with his (equally spiritual) institution, he is explicitly distinguished as "founder Acharyya." He is the one, "the Head," to whom the institution, comprised of all the human and material resources consecrated to his service, "owes its existence both as regards initiative and growth." Under such conditions, the institution is non-different from its Founder-Ācārya.

In the second installment, "The Gaudiya Math" returns to a theological exposition of the structure and function of the institution (Harm. 28.6:165):

All activity of the Gaudiya Math emanates from His Divine Grace Paramahansa Srila Bhakti Siddhanta Saraswati Goswami Maharaj, the spiritual successor of Sri Rupa Goswami who was originally authorised by Sri Caitanyadeva to explain the process of loving spiritual devotion for the benefit of all souls. The reality of the whole activity of the Gaudiya Math depends on the initiative of the Acharya. Sri Chaitanya Math of Sridham Mayapur reveals the source of the Gaudiya Math. The Acharya dwells eternally with the Supreme Lord Sri Krishna Chaitanya in His transcendental Abode in Sridham Mayapur, White Island of the Scriptures. From there the Acharya manifests his appearance on the mundane plane for the redemption of souls from the grip of the deluding energy and conferring on them loving devotion to the Feet of Sri Sri Radha-Govinda. The offshoots of Sri Chaitanya Math are an extension of the centre of the bestowal of grace for the benefit of souls in all parts of the world. The recognition of the connection with Sridham Mayapur is vital for realising the true nature of the Gaudiya Math and the grace of the Acharya.[25]

It is noteworthy that the use of Founder-Ācārya to refer to Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura occurs a second time in the pages of The Harmonist. In the issue of December 24, 1936 (Harm. 33.4:90-96) an article titled "The Gaudiya Math"—this time explicitly attributed to "Prof. Nisi Kanta Sanyal M.A."— contains these words: "The Gaudiya Math is the instrument and counterpart of His Divine Grace Paramahansa Paribrajakacharyya Sree Sreemad Bhakti Siddhanta Saraswati Goswami Maharaj. It lives and moves and has its being in the Founder-Acharyya."[26] A week following the publication of these words, Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura left this world.

In summary, we see that the precise hyphenated term "Founder-Acharya" makes its appearance in Sree Krishna Chaitanya to distinguish four formative preceptors who, having inherited the primordial ancient teaching imparted originally by God Himself, were able to revive and redact it for durable transmission, without deformation or diminution, in the degraded and degrading milieu of Kali-yuga. Infusing their teachings with their own realized knowledge, they endowed succeeding generations with a normative model of thinking, feeling, and acting, as well as specific salvific power.[27] The palatial Calcutta temple was inaugurated even as Professor Sānyāl was laboring to produce Sree Krishna Chaitanya. The temple, like the book, was viewed as a major component of a worldwide preaching mission. As part of the inaugural observances, The Harmonist carried an authoritative ecclesiological exposition of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s institution. It is significant, on this occasion, that the author of Sree Krishna Chaitanya made use of the words "founder Acharyya" to characterize Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura. Especially in light of their intimate working relationship, the disciple would take so consequential a step only with the accord of his spiritual master and Editor-in-Chief.

The similarities between "the four Founder-Acharyas of the Iron Age," and the ācārya of the Gauḍīya Mission are clear, in spite of the obvious differences. In the case of the four sampradāyaācāryas, the inaugural divine revelations took place in prehistoric time. In the case of the Gauḍīya-sampradāya, however, the divine disclosure provided by Lord Caitanya occurred within relatively recent historic time. Yet the "original pre-historic teachers," who were graced with direct enlightenment by the Lord, have their Gauḍīya analogue in (primarily) the Six Gosvāmīs. The parallel between the enlightenment of the ṣaḍ-gosvāmī by Lord Caitanya and that of caturmukha Brahmā by Lord Kṛṣṇa was clear to Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī:

Before the creation of this cosmic manifestation, the Lord enlightened the heart of Lord Brahmā with the details of the creation and manifested the Vedic knowledge. In exactly the same way, the Lord, being anxious to revive the Vṛndāvana pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa, impregnated the heart of Rūpa Gosvāmī with spiritual potency [nijaśakti]. By this potency, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī could revive the activities of Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana, activities almost lost to memory. In this way, He spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness throughout the world. (CC Madhya 19.1)

And Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura himself acted analogously to the four Founder-Ācāryas by reviving and reforming a weakened tradition, and engendering a society which, formed and pervaded by his own spirit, embodied the founder’s unassuageable eagerness to satisfy the merciful desires of the Lord. The four sampradāya-ācāryas powerfully countered impersonal monism, restored the true theistic siddhānta of the Vedas, and spread that siddhānta vigorously throughout India. So did Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura. Moreover, Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura had been concentrating his resources on going even further: to propagate acintyabhedābheda-tattva—the ultimate synthesis of the teachings of the four sampradāya-ācāryas—throughout the entire planet.

However, following the loss of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s physical presence, his institution unfortunately also suffered the immensely greater loss of his spiritual presence. As a result, the Gauḍīya Mission became deprived of the power to be "an extension of the centre of the bestowal of grace for the benefit of souls in all parts of the world."

Consequently, the servant of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, in order to carry out the order of his master, in order to continue his mission as the enactor of his desire and fulfiller of his aspiration, that servant became the Founder-Ācārya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. He will remain actively present among us, generation after succeeding generation, so long as we remain his unwavering servants in all conditions, as he himself showed us by his own resplendent example.

We revere and learn from the many great ācāryas in our line, yet as ISKCON Founder-Ācārya, Śrīla Prabhupāda becomes unique among them for us. In ISKCON, Prabhupāda himself remains present, generation after generation, as the single prominent śikṣā guru immanent in the life of each and every ISKCON devotee—a perpetual, indwelling active guiding and directing presence. He is thus the soul of ISKCON. As such, Śrīla Prabhupāda himself continues to act effectively in this world so long as ISKCON continues as the coherent expression and unified instrument of his will. In this way Śrīla Prabhupāda remains the soul of ISKCON, and ISKCON his body.

Śrīla Prabhupāda remains present. While Śrīla Prabhupāda was among us, he blessed us with clear instructions for maintaining our association with him during his future physical absence. We find these instructions expounded thoroughly in the Fourth Canto of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, wherein Prabhupāda elucidates Queen Vaidarbhī’s reaction to the death of her royal husband, an incident in Nārada’s allegorical narration regarding King Purañjana. Prabhupāda explains:

Figuratively the queen is supposed to be the disciple of the king; thus when the mortal body of the spiritual master expires, his disciples should cry exactly as the queen cries when the king leaves his body. However, the disciple and spiritual master are never separated because the spiritual master always keeps company with the disciple as long as the disciple follows strictly the instructions of the spiritual master. This is called the association of vāṇī (words). Physical presence is called vapuḥ [body]. As long as the spiritual master is physically present, the disciple should serve the physical body of the spiritual master, and when the spiritual master is no longer physically existing, the disciple should serve the instructions of the spiritual master.[28]

The queen prepares to immolate herself on her husband’s pyre. Her intention, Prabhupāda explains, signifies the determination of a disciple to faithfully execute the spiritual master’s order. Thereupon a learned brāhmaṇa appears—as "an old friend" of the queen—and begins to console and guide her. Allegorically, Prabhupāda says, the brāhmaṇa signifies the Supersoul. Prabhupāda continues:

When one becomes serious to follow the mission of the spiritual master, his resolution is tantamount to seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As explained before, this means meeting the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the instruction of the spiritual master. This is technically called vāṇī-sevā. Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura states in his Bhagavad-gītā commentary on the verse vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana (BG 2.41) that one should serve the words of the spiritual master. The disciple must stick to whatever the spiritual master orders. Simply by following on that line, one sees the Supreme Personality of Godhead. . . . In conclusion, if a disciple is very serious to execute the mission of the spiritual master, he immediately associates with the Supreme Personality of Godhead by vāṇī or vapuḥ. This is the only secret of success in seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead.[29]

Commenting on the next text, Śrīla Prabhupāda further elucidates this inviolable relationship between the faithful follower and the spiritual master:

One who is sincere and pure gets an opportunity to consult with the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His Paramātmā feature sitting within everyone’s heart. The Paramātmā is always the caitya-guru, the spiritual master within, and He comes before one externally as the instructor and initiator spiritual master. The Lord can reside within the heart, and He can also come out before a person and give him instructions. Thus the spiritual master is not different from the Supersoul sitting within the heart. . . . When the brāhmaṇa asked the woman who the man lying on the floor was, she answered that he was her spiritual master and that she was perplexed about what to do in his absence. At such a time the Supersoul immediately appears, provided the devotee is purified in heart by following the directions of the spiritual master. A sincere devotee who follows the instructions of the spiritual master certainly gets direct instructions from his heart from the Supersoul. Thus a sincere devotee is always helped directly or indirectly by the spiritual master and the Supersoul.

We should carefully take note that the presence of Śrīla Prabhupāda in ISKCON is conditional upon one thing: the dedication of his committed followers to execute his mission. Śrīla Prabhupāda has here revealed to us the "secret of success." We should accept and treasure this gift.

The soul of ISKCON. Lecturing on the first verse of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in Caracas on February 21, 1975, Śrīla Prabhupāda used a revealing example. It was not his main point, simply an example offered in passing. Even so, it captures one’s attention:

So here it is said that origin is life, because here it is said, yato ‘nvayād itarataś ca artheṣu abhijñaḥ svarāṭ. [He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent]. Just like if I am taken as the origin of this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, that means I know everything directly and indirectly of all this movement. If I do not know directly or indirectly everything of this movement, then I cannot be called the founder-ācārya. And as soon as the origin becomes a knower, he is life. So therefore dull matter cannot be the knower of everything.(750221 - Lecture SB 01.01.01 - Caracas)

As Śrīla Prabhupāda is the soul of ISKCON, so ISKCON is his body.[30] And because the incorporation is a spiritual one, the body is non-different from the embodied. In this same context, the principle (as previously noted) had already been propounded in The Harmonist:

The Gaudiya Math is. . . identical with its founder Acharyya. The associates, followers and abode of His Divine Grace are limbs of himself. None of them claim to be anything but a fully subordinate limb of this single individual.

Nearly four decades later, we find Śrīla Prabhupāda advancing this same principle in a letter to Rāyarāma (VB: Correspondence: Jan. 11, 1968):

You have very nicely stated that I am your life. This means you are my body and so neither life nor body can be separated because on the spiritual platform there is no such distinction. On material platform sometimes life is separated from body, but on the Absolute platform there is no such distinction.

Animated by the indwelling spirit of its Founder-Ācārya, ISKCON is the embodiment in this world of the spiritual potency of Lord Caitanya. As an entity thus ensouled by Śrīla Prabhupāda, ISKCON itself becomes a perdurable social organism. In the manner of a living organism, it embraces and enfolds the diversity of its individual elements—its members and sub-groups—into a transcendent union, in which each of its unique elements enshrines the concentrated unity of the whole, while the unified whole valorizes the distinct individuality of each and every one of its parts. In this fashion, ISKCON exemplifies that ultimate principle of divinity realized in the Vaiṣṇava traditions: "unity in diversity." [31] Stressing the paramount necessity of its application within ISKCON, Śrīla Prabhupāda explains how "its success will depend upon agreement" (VB: letter to Kīrtanānanda, Oct. 18, 1973):

Material nature means dissension and disagreement, especially in this Kali yuga. But, for this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement its success will depend on agreement, even though there are varieties of engagements. In the material world there are varieties, but there is no agreement. In the spiritual world there are varieties, but there is agreement. That is the difference. The materialist without being able to adjust the varieties and the disagreements makes everything zero. They cannot come into agreement with varieties, but if we keep Kṛṣṇa in the center, then there will be agreement in varieties. This is called unity in diversity. I am therefore suggesting that all our men meet in Mayapur every year during the birth anniversary of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. With all GBC and senior men present we should discuss how to make unity in diversity. But, if we fight on account of diversity, then it is simply the material platform. Please try to maintain the philosophy of unity in diversity. That will make our movement successful.

Reasons for Prabhupāda’s Founding of ISKCON

When Śrīla Prabhupāda successfully established Lord Caitanya’s movement as a world-preaching mission, he made the weighty decision to form a new institution, the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, with himself as Founderācārya. He did this on the basis of his realized knowledge. The essence of that knowledge he imbibed from his own spiritual master. Unfortunately, after Śrīla Prabhupāda’s Guru Mahārāja had passed away, that knowledge and realization largely ceased to be expressed in his guru’s own—but now fragmented— institution. Hence, Prabhupāda founded a new organization that, as a whole and in its every part, would embody and develop that realization—a realization that manifests itself as an unwavering, indefatigable commitment to deliver pure love of God to suffering humanity everywhere.

A new institution. The endeavor that brought Śrīla Prabhupāda to America was in fulfillment of the direct order of his spiritual master. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura on two occasions specifically enjoined his disciple Abhaya Caraṇāravinda Dāsa to preach to the English-speaking people. Abhaya received this direction at his very first meeting with Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura in 1922. And in 1936 he received it again by post in their last communication. By this time, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura had seen the debilitation of the Gauḍīya Maṭha’s own sustained and concentrated drive that had dispatched preachers to England in 1933.[32] His order to his disciple clearly shows he had not wavered in his resolve. In the long and varied course of fulfilling his master’s divine order, Śrīla Prabhupāda carefully modeled his own creative efforts on the paradigm established by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura with the Gauḍīya Maṭha in 1920s and ’30s. That adventurous course was marked by such milestones as the 1944 appearance of the English-language Back to Godhead, the publication of the three-volume First Canto of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam in 1962-65, the 1966 founding of ISKCON in New York City, the establishment of the movement in England and Germany in 1969, and the restoration to India in 1970 of Lord Caitanya’s movement, rejuvenated and revitalized. The historical record gives moving testimony throughout to the devoted regard and painstaking fidelity with which Śrīla Prabhupāda paid homage to the exemplar of his own spiritual master.

Śrīla Prabhupāda’s literary production illustrates this fidelity: In 1927 Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura had begun rehearsing for worldwide preaching by transforming Sajjana-toṣaṇī into The Harmonist. Following those footsteps, Śrīla Prabhupāda began preparation for his own eventual entrance onto the world-stage by starting up Back to Godhead. [33]

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura worked closely with Niśikānta Sānyāl on a magisterial English-language book—the projected three-volume Sree Krishna Chaitanya—to impress upon educated Europeans the loftiness and profundity of Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava teachings. This work was considered so indispensable that the missionaries of 1933 did not embark until copies of the first volume were in hand. Three decades later Śrīla Prabhupāda reprised this effort—this time working virtually alone—and spent the years 1960-65 in composing, fund-raising, printing, publishing, and distributing the Bhāgavatam First Canto in three volumes—1,100 copies of each volume. He did not embark from Calcutta until he had a steamer trunk crammed with Bhāgavatams to accompany him.

Śrīla Prabhupāda arrived in New York alone and destitute, yet he immediately began working to purchase a respectable property for a temple in Manhattan. The priority he gave this effort also replicates that of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, who had directed a considerable—but ultimately fruitless— effort to establish an impressive temple in London.[34] In this, as in many other instances, the record offers ample testimony as to how closely Śrīla Prabhupāda was guided by the precedent conduct of his spiritual master.

In the context of such fidelity, one momentous act of Śrīla Prabhupāda stands out as an apparent anomaly: his decision to continue his efforts outside the aegis of his spiritual master’s own established organization by founding the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. Further along the way—within two years of ISKCON’s formation—its founder accepted that distinctive honorific that had been borne by his own spiritual master: "Śrīla Prabhupāda." Both acts elicited sometimes virulent criticism from godbrothers. However, a close scrutiny of this undertaking—a kind of reboot-and-recovery of Mahāprabhu’s mission—reveals it to be an act of exemplary fidelity. It could not have been otherwise.

In fact, Śrīla Prabhupāda first proposed to place his hitherto unsupported missionary effort in the West under the mantle of the Gauḍīya Maṭha. In a letter from New York dated November 8, 1965, he pleaded the case for cooperation to his godbrother Bhakti Vilāsa Tīrtha Mahārāja, the then head of the Śrī Caitanya Maṭha in Māyāpura. Initiated with the name Kuñja Bihārī Dāsa, he had previously been affiliated with the Ramakrishna Mission, and his worldly competence and managerial skills had lead Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura to establish him as secretary and overseer of the entire Gauḍīya Maṭha institution[35] Śrīla Prabhupāda’s letter is worth quoting at length:

I am here and see here a good field for work but I am alone without men and money. To start a centre here we must have our own buildings. The Ramakrishna Mission or any other mission which are working here all have their own buildings. So if we want to start a centre here we must have also our own building. To have a own building means to pay at least Rs 500,000/-five lacs or one hundred thousand dollars. And to furnish the house with up to date paraphernalia means another two lacs. If attempt is made this money can be had also. But I think for establishing Matha and temples here you may take the charge and I shall be able to make them self independent. There is difficulty of exchange and I think unless you have some special arrangement for starting a branch of Caitanya Math transfer of money will be difficult. But if you can do so with the help of the Bengal or Central Government, here is good chance to open immediately a centre in New York. . . . Without our own house it will not be possible to open our own centre. For me it will take long time but for you it is very easy. The Calcutta Marwaris are in your hand by the Grace of Srila Prabhupada. If you like you can immediately raise a fund of Rs 10,00,000/- ten lacs to open a centre in New Work. One centre started, I shall be able to start many others also. So here is a chance of cooperation between us and I shall be glad to know if you are ready for this cooperation. I came here to study the situation and I find it very nice and if you are also agreeable to cooperate with it will be all very nice by the will Srila Prabhupada. . . . If you agree then take it for granted that I am one of the worker of the Sri Mayapur Caitanya Matha. I have no ambition for becoming the proprietor of any Matha or Mandir but I want working facilities. I am working day and night for my Bhagavatam publication and I need centres in the western countries. If I am successful to start a centre in New york, then my next attempt will be start one in California and Montreal . . . . There is ample scope for working but unfortunately we have simply wasted time by quarreling with one another while the Ramakrishna Mission with misrepresentation have made their position all over the world. Although they are not so popular in these foreign countries they have made a great propaganda only and as a result of such propaganda they are very prosperous in India while the Gaudiya Math people are starving. We should now come to our senses. If possible join with our other godbrothers and let us make an effort combinedly to preach the cult of Gaura Hari in every cities and villages of the western countries. (651108 - Letter to Teertha Maharaj written from New York)

If you agree to cooperate with me as I have suggested above, then I shall extend my Visa period. . . . otherwise I shall return to India. Immediately I want some good assistants to work with me. They must be educated and able to talk in English as also read Sanskrit nicely. For preaching here two languages English and Sanskrit will be very much appreciated. I think under your leadership every camp of our god brothers should supply a man good for this purpose and they must agree to work under my direction. If that is possible then you will see how our beloved Srila Prabhupada will be satisfied on all of us. I think we shall all forget now the past fratricidal war and now come forward for a good cause. If they are not agreeable then do it yourself and I am at your service.

On November 23, Śrīla Prabhupāda wrote Tīrtha Mahārāja again, this time with a description of a specific property and amount of down payment, noting: " . . . I think this amount you can arrange immediately and just start a branch of your Sri Caitanya Math or designate the branch as New York Gaudiya Math." (651123 - Letter to Teertha Maharaj written from New York)

When Śrīla Prabhupāda had the prospect of a large donation from India to secure a temple, he wrote to Bon Mahārāja and to Tīrtha Mahārāja with appeals to undertake a specific, promising approach to secure the requisite government approval for transfer of funds to America. "Everything is ready," he wrote to Tīrtha Mahārāja:

namely the house is ready, the donor is ready and my humble service on the spot is also ready. Now you are to give the finishing touch because you are most affectionate disciple of His Divine Grace. I think Srila Prabhupada wants that in this great attempt by my humble self your valued service may also be dovetailed. (660204 - Letter to Teertha Maharaj written from New York)

In the event, these strenuous efforts to secure cooperation from these two godbrothers yielded no fruit. In stark contrast, a young disciple of a godbrother, a brahmacārī named Mangalniloy,[36] wrote Śrīla Prabhupāda to express his admiration for Prabhupāda’s endeavor and his eagerness to assist him. However, Mangalniloy’s spiritual master, Mādhava Mahārāja, did not share the enthusiasm of his disciple. Prabhupāda had asked Mangalniloy to urge Mādhava Mahārāja to take up the effort in India to secure release of funds. However, the reply Prabhupāda received from Mangalniloy inadvertently disclosed the antipathy of yet one more godbrother. Here is Prabhupāda’s highly revealing reaction (VB: Correspondence, June 23, 1966):

I requested for this [help on release of funds] to Sripada Bon Maharaja but he has declined, I requested Sripada Tirtha Maharaja and at first he promised [to] see the President and the Finance Minister but later on he is trying to avoid it. So I have to request Sripada Madhava Maharaja through you for this most important work to see the President and the Finance Minister immediately with reference to my application as it is acknowledged by the Embassy of India in Washington.

You have written to say in your letter under reply that you want to join first with me then talk with Sripada Maharaja about cooperation otherwise your journey to this country may be cancelled by him. I could not follow the import of this proposal. Do you think that cooperation with me prior to your joining me here is not possible? Why this mentality. Is it my private business?

Srila Prabhupada wanted to construct some temples in the Foreign countries as preaching centres of the message of Srila Rupa Raghunatha and I am trying to do this in this part of the world. The money is ready and the opportunity is open. If by seeing the Finance Minister this work can be facilitated why should we wait for time so that you cannot talk with your Guru maharaj about any cooperation because you afraid of your journey here may be cancelled. Please do not think in that way. Take everything as Srila Prabhupada’s work and try to cooperate in that spirit. The Gaudiya Math institution has failed[.]

The last two sentences above remain highly relevant to us in ISKCON today. They reward reflection. In the first sentence, Prabhupāda gives two essential directions for spiritual success: Consider every undertaking as "Śrīla Prabhupāda’s work" (and not as "mine" or "yours"). Animated by this mentality, cooperate together. Prabhupāda’s next sentence bluntly states the consequence of not following the directions just delivered: proven failure.

So it happened that in 1966 Śrīla Prabhupāda gained an unwelcome realization: the spiritual defects that engendered the failure of the Gauḍīya Maṭha remained robust three decades later.

All his hopes for cooperation from donors, government, and godbrothers shattered, Śrīla Prabhupāda would be obliged to start from scratch—just himself, alone. Undeterred, he wrote Mangalniloy, "There is no need for help from any one else."[37]

This, then, is a major component of the context in which the International Society for Krishna Consciousness was born. The other element is the spiritual fulfillment afforded Śrīla Prabhupāda by a steadily increasing number of young Americans who gave their earnest and eager attention to Lord Caitanya’s teachings.

What was Prabhupāda to do? In his first plea for cooperation posted to Tīrtha Mahārāja in November of 1965, just after his arrival in New York City, Prabhupāda had offered to work within his godbrother’s institution:

So here is a chance of cooperation between us and I shall be glad to know if you are ready for this cooperation. I came here to study the situation and I find it very nice and if you are also agreeable to cooperate with it will be all very nice by the will Srila Prabhupada. . . . If you agree then take it for granted that I am one of the worker of the Sri Mayapur Caitanya Matha. (651108 - Letter to Teertha Maharaj written from New York)

The recipient—and many others—having proven themselves uncooperative, Śrīla Prabhupāda then established his own institution.

For doing that, Prabhupāda was duly condemned. Writing some two-and-a-half years later to the secretary of the Gauḍīya Mission in Calcutta,[38] Śrīla Prabhupāda again takes up the key theme of cooperation, repeating the word itself, over and over like a drum beat. And he cites its absence not only to reproach his godbrothers but also to cleverly vindicate his own founding of ISKCON:

. . . . in the matter of my activities of spreading the objective of Srila Prabhupada Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Goswami Maharaja, I am prepared to cooperate with the Gaudiya Mission in all respects, but I do not know under what condition you wish to cooperate with me. But I am prepared to accept any condition for getting your cooperation in full. So I shall be glad to know from you under what condition our cooperation is possible. But I am prepared in every respect and I shall await your reply with interest.

So far as my starting a separate organization known as International Society for Krishna Consciousness, it was inevitable because none of our godbrothers are cooperating with one another. Every one of us is conducting his own institution, and there is difference of opinion even between Gaudiya Mission and Gaudiya Math.

So if it is now possible to combine ourselves together, I shall be the first man to welcome this good opportunity. But apart from others, if Gaudiya Mission is prepared to cooperate with me, I am prepared to accept this cooperation in any condition. Please therefore let me know your terms of cooperation, and I shall be very glad to consider it. (690523 - Letter to Gaudiya Mission written from New Vrindaban, USA)

Three days after writing his response, Śrīla Prabhupāda disclosed his mind in a letter to his disciple Brahmānanda Dāsa:

Regarding the Gaudiya Mission letter of Dr. Syama Sundar Brahmacari, I have replied asking them the terms of cooperation which he has mentioned. Let us see their terms, although it is a hopeless business. Still, as you know, I never become hopeless in any case. So I am negotiating with them to see how we can cooperate.(690526 - Letter to Brahmananda written from New Vrindaban, USA )

It should be noted that Śrīla Prabhupāda went on making efforts at cooperative endeavors with Gauḍīya Maṭha members up until his last breath.[39] His persistence is testimony to his commitment to the order of his spiritual master. This is his spirit, conveyed by an epigram: "It is a hopeless business, but I never become hopeless."

Śrīla Prabhupāda’s persistent invocation of the idea of cooperation in these letters discloses that the word carries special significance for him. We should take a little time to grasp it. The English word is derived from a Latin root meaning simply "to work together with," but in Prabhupāda’s teachings the term becomes freighted with profound spiritual import. In a lecture (Seattle, 1968), Śrīla Prabhupāda conveyed this import with characteristic simplicity: "When you do something in cooperation with the Lord, that is called bhakti." This cooperation with Kṛṣṇa, Prabhupāda stresses, is essentially voluntary (681009 - Lecture - Seattle):

We are persons and Kṛṣṇa is a person, and our relationship with Kṛṣṇa is always open as a voluntary agreement. That voluntary attitude—"Yes, Kṛṣṇa, I shall gladly cooperate. Whatever You say"—that ready willingness to obey is only possible if there is love. Forcing will not make me agree. But if there is love, oh, I shall gladly do it. That is bhakti. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness.[40]

Cooperation is the vital principle of all healthy social relationships, and it attains its highest application in divinity. The Lord is supremely personal. Therefore He is supremely social, for personhood becomes manifest only in relationships with other persons. For that reason, as Prabhupāda said many times, "Kṛṣṇa is never alone." On one occasion, he noted: "When we speak of Kṛṣṇa, ‘Kṛṣṇa’ means Kṛṣṇa with His devotees" (VB: Lecture, Los Angeles, Jan. 10, 1969). The Lord’s devotees even become integral to His own identity. Kṛṣṇa’s own names often illustrate this fact by including names of his intimate devotees: Yaśodānandana, Rāmānuja, Rādhāramaṇa, and so on. Thus, the supremely absolute is at the same time supremely relative—entering into relationships with all varieties of individual devotees. As a result, all those diversities become increasingly integrated into a more perfect union. In such a way, a transcendent relativity is manifest as a society of the utmost harmonious cooperation, and through the conduct of those relationships the Lord—and His associates—eternally increase in beauty, opulence, bliss, and knowledge.

Salvation for a Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava means socialization into this highest society—being accepted, for example, into the company of the Six Gosvāmīs or into that circle of gopīs who may serve Rati-mañjarī or Lalitā-sakhī. Damnation is the opposite: isolation and exclusion. We self-alienated, non-cooperative living entities—living here in exile, isolated in solitary confinement by the impervious walls of our egoism—are always summoned to return as fully integrated members of that transcendent society. And bhakti-yoga is the practice by which we become fit to rejoin it. By bhakti, we become increasingly integrated into the divine society, closer to Kṛṣṇa and closer to His associates, and at the same time, we try to bring others with us. "And this is the highest yoga," Śrīla Prabhupāda said in 1968 in San Francisco.

If you push on this movement of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then you’ll be performing the highest type of yoga. Don’t be misled by so-called ‘yogas.’ This is yoga. Yoga means cooperation, cooperation with the Supreme.(680317 - Lecture BG 07.01 - San Francisco)

Bhakti is the yoga of cooperation. Of all spiritual societies in this world, the Saṅkīrtana movement most fully leads us into this transcendent cooperation. Since saṅkīrtana is the yuga-dharma, in this age of quarrel, we will return to the kingdom of Kṛṣṇa not as isolated individuals but all together. "We will have another ISKCON there," wrote Śrīla Prabhupāda.[41]

Prabhupāda’s founding of ISKCON was "inevitable" because of the failure of cooperation within the Gauḍīya Maṭha. The new, but inevitable, institution was meticulously crafted by Śrīla Prabhupāda, who faithfully accepted as his ecclesiological template his spiritual master’s own institution—by then hopelessly shattered. The incorporation of ISKCON in July of 1966 proved to be only the first of a sequence of five crucial steps in the reconstitution of Lord Caitanya’s movement. In the summer of 1966, the bearer of the grand—if not grandiloquent—title "International Society for Krishna Consciousness" encompassed no more than a seventy-year-old man, a rundown storefront, and a band of ragtag kids. Yet the seed had been planted and would fructify.[42] It took another four years or so for all the requisite elements to become manifest, so that ISKCON was made fit to become the fruition and fulfillment of the Gauḍīya Maṭha institution.[43]

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness. It is a brand-new name for a new society, a name embellished by a neat, entirely au courant acronym. Although the name is new, it harks back to two very old names, and those names disclose that the society, brand-new though it be, is a deeply connected perpetuation of its own ancient and modern heritage. Śrīla Prabhupāda himself depicts his English coinage "Krishna consciousness" as a translation of the Sanskrit compound kṛṣṇabhāvanāmṛta. He writes: "Our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is therefore called kṛṣṇa-bhāvanāmṛta-saṅgha, the association of persons who are simply satisfied in thoughts of Kṛṣṇa" (SB 9.9.45, purport). Should the reader at this point wonder where the "international" is in kṛṣṇa-bhāvanāmṛta-saṅgha, Prabhupāda avers, in effect, that it is inherent in kṛṣṇa-bhāvanāmṛta:

One who is absorbed in kṛṣṇa-bhāvanāmṛta has no material benefits to ask from Kṛṣṇa. Instead, such a person prays to the Lord for the benediction of being able to spread His glories all over the worlds.

Kṛṣṇa consciousness not only gives bliss to the devotees who possess it but also impels them to give it to others, spreading it "all over the worlds."

Bearing this in mind, we can see that the phrase kṛṣṇabhāvanāmṛta alludes to an important verse in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta (CC Ādi-līlā 16.1):

vande śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanyaṁ kṛṣṇa-bhāvāmṛtaṁ hi yaḥ
āsvādyāsvādayan bhaktān prema-dīkṣām aśikṣayat

Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who personally tasted the nectar of ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa and then instructed His devotees how to taste it. Thus He enlightened them about ecstatic love of Kṛṣṇa to initiate them into transcendental knowledge.

Here the nature of Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s "ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa" is such that he relishes it himself and causes others to do so. Those devotees who thus receive kṛṣṇa-bhāvāmṛta themselves come to be both tasters and givers of it. In this way, the society for Kṛṣṇa consciousness naturally becomes "international."

Two names for Mahāprabhu appear in the first line of this verse: kṛṣṇa-caitanya and kṛṣṇa-bhāvāmṛta. They are nearly synonymous, both indicating a person whose consciousness is absorbed in Kṛṣṇa.[44] Both words, then, can be rendered equally well as "Kṛṣṇa consciousness." Thus, Lord Caitanya’s personal name—rendered into English as "Kṛṣṇa consciousness"— is encoded in the name of the society founded by Śrīla Prabhupāda.

The other historical progenitor of "International Society for Krishna Consciousness" is "viśva-vaiṣṇava-rāja-sabhā." These words appear within the ceremonious declaration that closes each book of Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī’s Bhāgavata-sandarbha. The word sabhā means "society." The word viśva means "the whole world," for which "international" will serve. We can take the referent of "vaiṣṇava-rāja"—literally "the king of Vaiṣṇavas"—to be Lord Caitanya, as we find in the Sajjana-toṣaṇī article reporting Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s "reestablishment" of the society in 1919:[45] "Śrī Caitanyadeva is Kṛṣṇacandra Himself, the king of all Vaiṣṇavas in the world, Viśva-Vaiṣṇava-rāja. The gathering of His devotees is the Śrī Viśva-Vaiṣṇava-rāja-sabhā."

If the words "Krishna Consciousness" in the name of Prabhupāda’s society encodes the name of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, and if "vaiṣṇava-rāja" denotes Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, then the appellation "International Society for Krishna Consciousness" also pays homage to viśva-vaiṣṇava-rāja-sabhā. If, alternatively "vaiṣṇava-rāja" is taken to refer to those leading devotees who have attained an advanced stage of Kṛṣṇa consciousness,[46] Śrīla Prabhupāda’s English name for his institution will serve just as well. In any case, we see that the name "International Society for Krishna Consciousness" signifies, by its web of allusions and associations, that the society so named remains profoundly connected with and nourished by its Gauḍīya heritage, even as, at the same time, the society revitalizes that tradition in order to carry it forward, retrofitted for multicultural efficacy on the worldwide stage.

In doing this, Śrīla Prabhupāda is remaining faithful to his own great predecessors in the tradition. In 1919, his own spiritual master had formally "reestablished" Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura’s Viśva-Vaiṣṇava-Sabhā, restoring its old name Viśva-VaiṣṇavaRāja-Sabhā. On that occasion, Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura noted that the eternally situated Viśva-Vaiṣṇava-RājaSabhā, which descended to the world with Mahāprabhu and His associates, has sometimes become occluded by the illusory potency; however, powerful devotees arise to reignite it and dispel the darkness of the world.

So it happened that, after the time of Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura and Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa, the ViśvaVaiṣṇava-Rāja-Sabhā became nearly undetectable, until "In 399 Gaura Era (1885 A.D.), a brilliant star of the universal Vaiṣṇava firmament re-illuminated the Śrī Viśva-Vaiṣṇava-rāja-sabhā." This "brilliant star" was Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, "the servant of the king of universal Vaiṣṇavas," who endowed his reformed and revitalized Sabhā with spiritual energy and achievement. In 1919, Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura recast and reenergized the Viśva-Vaiṣṇava-Rāja-Sabhā, introducing into the Gauḍīya tradition an organized monastic preaching order of sannyāsīs and brahmacārīs centered in temples. The Mission swiftly spread throughout India and made an initial foray into Europe, only to have its light again vanish for thirty long years. Then, in 1966, in New York City—having single-handedly established his tradition in the West, and having discovered what was left of the Gauḍīya Maṭha to have become "useless" [47] — Śrīla Prabhupāda, following in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessors, effected once again a re-illumination of the Viśva-Vaiṣṇava-Rāja-Sabhā, now restored and re-energized in the name and style of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness.

Śrīla Prabhupāda. Followers became initiated, increased in number, and began opening temples in quick succession: San Francisco, then Montreal, Los Angeles, then Boston, and on and on. Devotees advanced in the disciplines of discipleship, and, as they did so, they became increasingly enabled to understand their master. Just as the mahā-mantra gradually reveals itself to those who properly chant, so the spiritual master becomes revealed to the disciples who properly follow. As a result, "the Swami" and "Swamiji" became "Śrīla Prabhupāda." This happened in Boston, in an impromptu exchange. Govinda Dāsī recollects:

All along everyone knew him as Swamiji. This is up until May of 1968. So Goursundar [Govinda Dāsī’s husband] decided he wanted to call me Govindaji, and so he asked Prabhupāda and Prabhupāda said, "No, actually ‘ji’ is a third-class form of address. It’s better not to call her Govindaji." So I piped up, I was sitting right in front of him and I said, "Well, if it’s a third-class form of address, why are we calling you ‘ji’? Why are we calling you Swamiji?" And he said, "It’s not very important." I said, "Oh, no, it’s very important. If it’s a third-class form of address, then we don’t want to call you that. We want to call you the most first-class form of address. So tell us what would be a good name for us to call you by." And he was very humble, very reluctant, but I pressed him, "We’ve got to change this," and he said, "You can call me Gurudev or Guru Mahārāj or Prabhupāda." So I said, "Well, that’s three. We need one." So I said, "Well, which one is the best?" and he answered, "Śrīla Prabhupāda is nice, that is the best." So I said, "From today you will be called Śrīla Prabhupāda." So I told all the devotees. Some of the devotees didn’t like it because it kind of is a tongue twister, "Prabhupāda," and "Swamiji" kind of flows more easily. But we gradually started calling him Śrīla Prabhupāda from that time.[48]

The way of the change was low-key and casual; the change itself, momentous. It would not have been so for "Gurudeva" or "Guru Mahārāja"—since both are in widespread common use. But "Prabhupāda" is exceptional.

The word appears in Caitanya-caritāmṛta (CC Madhya 10.23), which quotes Kāśī Miśra referring to Lord Caitanya Himself as "Prabhupāda." Śrīla Prabhupāda comments:

In this verse the word prabhupāda, referring to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, is significant. Regarding this, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Gosvāmī Prabhupāda comments, "Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and all His servants address Him as Prabhupāda. This means that there are many prabhus taking shelter under His lotus feet." The pure Vaiṣṇava is addressed as prabhu, and this address is an etiquette observed between Vaiṣṇavas. When many prabhus remain under the shelter of the lotus feet of another prabhu, the address Prabhupāda is given. Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu and Śrī Advaita Prabhu are also addressed as Prabhupāda. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Śrī Advaita Prabhu and Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu are all viṣṇu-tattva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Viṣṇu. Therefore all living entities are under Their lotus feet. Lord Viṣṇu is the eternal Lord of everyone, and the representative of Lord Viṣṇu is the Lord’s confidential servant. Such a person acts as the spiritual master for neophyte Vaiṣṇavas; therefore the spiritual master is as respectable as Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya or Lord Viṣṇu Himself. For this reason the spiritual master is addressed as Oṁ Viṣṇupāda or Prabhupāda.

Within our lineage "Prabhupāda" is used in particular to honor the luminaries who comprise the Six Gosvāmīs, and then— centuries later—Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura.[49] The title thus places ISKCON’s founder in very rarefied company. More immediately, the sharing of the appellation "Śrīla Prabhupāda" between guru and disciple intimates an affinity both profound and exceptional between the two personages and their achievements.

Nearly a year after the conversation with Govinda Dāsī, Back to Godhead No. 23 (April 18, 1969) devoted a full-page spread under the banner headline "Prabhupada" to herald the honorific.[50] "Prabhupad" makes only a single appearance in No. 25 (September 1969) (1969 Back to Godhead Number 25), but after that it rapidly becomes the norm. And in issue No. 27 (undated)(1969 Back to Godhead Number 27) "Swamiji" makes its final appearance in the pages of Back to Godhead.[51]

We have been describing in chronological sequence the critical steps or stages by which ISKCON took form under Śrīla Prabhupāda’s supervision:

The founding of an institution under the name "International Society for Krishna Consciousness."

The recognition of that founder with the title "Prabhupāda."

Three more essential elements yet remained to be manifest in the morphology of ISKCON. All of them were finally in place by early 1971. They are:

The further recognition of Prabhupāda with the title "Founder-ācārya."

The establishment of the Governing Body Commission.

The acquisition of land in Śrīdhāma Māyāpura for ISKCON’s "world headquarters," and ceremoniously establishing there the foundation of the Temple of the Vedic Planetarium.

With that, all the core elements of ISKCON will have been set in place by its Founder-ācārya.[52]

Founder-ācārya. This highly consequential title of Śrīla Prabhupāda took some time to gain its proper prominence. When it did, in 1970 the title "ācārya" by itself was deemed both inadequate and offensive. Yet it is evident that Śrīla Prabhupāda knew exactly what he wanted from the beginning.

Nevertheless, just after incorporating ISKCON in 1966, Śrīla Prabhupāda’s personal ISKCON letterhead stationery displays his position simply as "Acharya: Swami A.C. Bhaktivedanta."[53] Similarly, the line "Acharya: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami" received public circulation on the famous "Stay High Forever!" flyer of September, 1966."[54] When we examine the first few years of Back to Godhead, [55] we find nowhere any formal letter or masthead-style lines displaying Śrīla Prabhupāda’s name and position in relation to ISKCON—with two quite striking exceptions.[56] These occur only in the second (September 12, 1966) and the fourth (December 15, 1966) issues—and both of such a common prominence, format, and style as to indicate the guiding hand of Śrīla Prabhupāda, and making their utter absence elsewhere somewhat mysterious.

In the second and fourth issue of Back to Godhead, the inside front cover displays a nearly full-page photograph of Śrīla Prabhupāda. (There are two different photos, each capturing Prabhupāda before the sturdy elm in Tompkins Square Park, both from the same article in The East Village Other.) In the space above each photograph stand the words:

HIS DIVINE GRACE
And below:
SWAMI A.C. BHAKTIVEDANTA
FOUNDER ACHARYA
INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR KRISHNA CONSCIOUSNESS, INC.

After these two early issues, the title of "Founder-ācārya" vanishes until issue number 28 (in late 1969),[57] whereupon it re-emerges as part of a treatment almost identical to the two of late 1966. In the 1969 issue, a photograph of Śrīla Prabhupāda takes up the entire first page, with room only for the caption below:

SRI SRIMAD A.C. BHAKTIVEDANTA SWAMI
THE FOUNDER ACHARYA OF ISKCON AND THE GREATEST EXPONENT
OF KRISHNA CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE WESTERN WORLD.

However, nearly a year passes before we again see such a treatment of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s position. Then, with Back to Godhead No. 36 (late in 1970) (1970 Back to Godhead Number 36) we find the start of a regular standard presentation of Śrīla Prabhupāda as we are accustomed to seeing it today—and which had its prototype in two of the very first issues of Back to Godhead—a large photograph above his name and position given in full:

His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda
Founder-Ācārya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness

Even though the title of Founder-ācārya took some time to become thus normalized in use, it is clear that Śrīla Prabhupāda had it in mind very early on. The particular presentations of Prabhupāda as Founder-ācārya in those three early issues are certainly few and irregular. Yet all three so closely adhere to a common exemplar—as if directed by an editorial style-sheet— that one can see the guiding hand of Śrīla Prabhupāda behind it.

The grave crisis of 1970—touched on at the outset of this commentary—prompted Śrīla Prabhupāda to undertake powerful remedial actions to fortify his movement.[58] Among them was the firm establishment of standards for the use of "Founder-ācārya" as his title in reference to ISKCON. By so doing, Prabhupāda intended to impress upon all ISKCON members our need to deepen our understanding of his position and to keep it actively in mind.

What makes this so important? The spiritual power of ISKCON depends on it. That spiritual potency, in the beginning of ISKCON, reposed entirely in Śrīla Prabhupāda. By following his directions, his disciples—even though raw and wavering— became themselves empowered by his potency. With just neophyte devotees acting as his effective agents, by 1971 Śrīla Prabhupāda had spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness all over the world:

in addition to the increasing number of temples in North America, ISKCON centers had been established in London, Paris, Hamburg, and Tokyo, and the movement was going strong. How was Śrīla Prabhupāda able to accomplish this? By cherishing the order of his spiritual master as his greatest treasure and by serving that order without reservation, Śrīla Prabhupāda had been enabled—though alone and unaided— to pick up the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement exactly where Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura had left it off, and then to propel it onward with the same resolute drive that had animated his own spiritual master. Astonishingly, the goal that the unified forces of "a great institution" had concentrated on for nearly two decades, had been realized, in the event, by a single agent of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura acting alone.

Thus Śrīla Prabhupāda had seen for himself—had proven in action—the potency of discipleship, of servitorship. Owing to servitorship alone, it seemed that the single divine energy—gauraśakti—had seamlessly continued to act, without interruption, merely transferring itself from one willing instrument to the next. Now Prabhupāda’s challenge was to instill the same art of spiritual servitorship within his own disciples. If successful, they in turn will pass it on, as the living cultural legacy of ISKCON. If his followers can receive and be worthy of his legacy, developing it and improving it just as he had done, keeping cooperative servitorship at the core of all action—then his work as Founderācārya will find its fulfillment.

During this same period, Śrīla Prabhupāda complied with a request from some disciples to be able to honor him with a special, or personal, praṇāma-mantra. [59] It would normally fall to a competent disciple to compose such a mantra in his gurudeva’s honor. Since at the time, no disciple of Śrīla Prabhupāda was sufficiently qualified spiritually and linguistically to do so, Prabhupāda was placed in the awkward position of coming up with a mantra himself. As a result, we have been given Prabhupāda’s own representation of himself, how he thought of himself, and how he wanted us to remember him as we daily invoked his presence:

namas te sārasvate deve gaura-vāṇī-pracāriṇe
nirviśeṣa-śūnyavādi-pāścātya-deśa-tāriṇe

Sārasvata is the name in this verse by which Śrīla Prabhupāda wishes to be remembered, his name in relation to his spiritual master. Sārasvata is his patronymic; it means "son [or disciple] of [Bhaktisiddhānta] Sarasvatī."[60] As Prabhupāda explains (CC Ādi 10.84, purport): "As members of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement we belong to the family, or disciplic succession, of Sarasvatī Gosvāmī, and thus we are known as Sārasvatas. Obeisances are therefore offered to the spiritual master as sārasvata-deva, or a member of the Sārasvata family . . . ." Thus, his own name in this praṇāma-mantra is simply the name of his spiritual master, which, by means of a few grammatical tweaks— changing the first a to ā, and modifying the word-ending— becomes his own. In this way, "Sārasvata" directs attention to their deep affinity and suggests that achievements of the son— accomplished in his father’s name—belong to the father, his creator and director. In this instance, the son represents the father in the literal sense of the term: to "represent" is to "represent"—to present over again.

Śrīla Prabhupāda’s praṇāma-mantra recognizes him as being the one who spreads (pracāriṇa) Lord Caitanya teaching (gauravāṇī) to the West (pāścātya-deśa). His achievement had been the concerted aim of the Gauḍīya Maṭha, which had attained a toehold in Europe in 1933 but nothing further. Had that position become secured—particularly by the construction of a London temple—Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura would have gone to the West himself.[61] Circumstantially, his intent seems to have been frustrated. Even so, in the ripeness of time, he had one faithful Sārasvata who fulfilled his heartfelt desire.

The name sārasvata-deva indicates that its bearer is the continuation of Sarasvatī Ṭhākura in another form. In that form, Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura succeeded in fulfilling his heartfelt desire. When his most dedicated servant realized that success was at hand,[62] and that it bore the name and form of "International Society for Krishna Consciousness," Śrīla Prabhupāda accepted the title "Founder-ācārya." This confident, self-assured act of Śrīla Prabhupāda indicates that he knew very well that this title had been prepared to recognize the crowning success of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura in establishing Kṛṣṇa consciousness as a global movement, and that Śrīla Sarasvatī Ṭhākura had achieved this success through his own Sārasvata.

Śrīla Prabhupāda’s praṇāma-mantra recognizes two kinds of achievements: widespread propagation of devotional service to the Supreme Lord, and overthrowing nihilism and impersonalism. These were also the aims of the Gauḍīya Maṭha institution under Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura and the signature achievements of the sampradāya-ācāryas as well.

It is notable that Śrīla Prabhupāda was able to recognize his own achievement, and accept the honors that properly belong to it, without a tinge of pride. It is evident that at a certain time, Śrīla Prabhupāda realized that in spite of all impediments, he would be able to execute his spiritual mater’s order. He recognized that he had been empowered. It is a natural characteristic of spiritual psychology, observable in great devotees and saints, that the experience of empowerment is inevitably accompanied by the experience of extreme humility, and the more empowerment bears fruit, the further humility increases. This compact blend of great accomplishment and great humility is beyond the scope of experience of ordinary materialistic persons. They cannot begin to imagine it.

When visible success began to attend upon Śrīla Prabhupāda’s efforts, he discounted his own effort, gave credit to others, and was filled with gratitude.

On several memorable occasions, he disclosed his mind in public addresses. For example, speaking to his disciples gathered in London to celebrate Śrī Vyāsa-pūjā on August 22, 1973, Śrīla Prabhupāda said:

Anyone who is connected with our movement, he’s not ordinary living being. Actually, he’s liberated soul. And I am very much hopeful that my disciples who are now participating today, even if I die, my movement will not stop, I am very much hopeful. . . . My Guru Mahārāja, His Divine Grace Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Gosvāmī Prabhupāda, he also attempted to send his disciples to preach Caitanya cult in the Western world. . . . First meeting, perhaps you know, he asked me to preach. So at that time I was young man, only twenty-five years old, and I was also householder. So I should have joined and executed his desire immediately, but due to my ill luck I could not immediately execute his order, but it was in my heart that it is to be done. So better late than never, I executed his order at the age of seventy years, not at the age of twenty-five. So actually I wasted so much time, I can understand that. . . . The message was there when I was twenty-five years old, but I began at the age of seventy years. But I did not forget the message. Otherwise, how could I do? That was, that is a fact. I was simply finding out the opportunity, how to do it. So anyway, although I began very late, at the age of seventy years, so by the help of my disciples this movement is gaining ground and is spreading all over the world. So therefore I have to thank you. It is all due to you. It is not my credit, but it is your credit that you are helping me in executing the order of my Guru Mahārāja. (730822 - Lecture Festival Appearance Day, Sri Vyasa-puja - London)

Later that year in Los Angeles, Śrīla Prabhupāda expressed similar thoughts, with more visible emotion, on the Disappearance Day of his spiritual master (VB: Lecture, Dec. 31, 1973):

So in this way, gradually, I became attached to these Gauḍīya Matha activities, and by the grace of Kṛṣṇa, my business also was not going very well. [laughs] Yes. Kṛṣṇa says yasyāham anughṛṇāmi hariṣye tad-dhanaṁ śanaiḥ. If somebody wants to be actually devotee of Kṛṣṇa, at the same time, keeps his material attachment, then Kṛṣṇa’s business is He takes away everything material, so that cent percent he becomes, I mean to say, dependent on Kṛṣṇa. So that actually happened to my life. I was obliged to come to this movement to take up this very seriously.

And I was dreaming that: "Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura is calling me, ‘Please come out with me!’" [pause] So I was sometimes horrified, "Oh, what is this? I have give up my family life? Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura is calling me? I have to take sannyāsa?" Oh, I was horrified. But I saw several times, calling me. So anyway, it is by his grace I was forced to give up my family life, my so-called business life. And he brought me some way or other in preaching his gospel.

So this is a memorable day. What he desired, I am trying little bit, and you are all helping me. So I have to thank you more. You are actually representative of my Guru Mahārāja [begins to cry] because you are helping me in executing the order of my Guru Mahārāja. . . .

When appreciative Indians began praising Śrīla Prabhupāda as a magician or miracle-maker, he denied having any special powers. Here is his account given in Bombay on January 9, 1973:

Yes, we should not be very much proud that "I have created wonderful." Why? . . . Sometimes people, they give me so much honor: "Swamijī, you have created wonderful." I do not feel that I have created wonderful. What I have done? I say that I’m not a magician, I do not know how to create wonderful. I have simply presenting Bhagavad-gītā as it is, that’s all. If there is any credit, this is only credit. Anyone can do it. The Bhagavad-gītā is there, and anyone can present Bhagavad-gītā as it is. So it will act wonderful. I am not a magician. I do not know the tricks of magic and the yoga-siddhi. . . . So my only credit is, I do not want to mix with this pure Bhagavadgītā teaching, any rascaldom, that’s all. That is my credit. And whatever little miracle has been done, only on this principle. That’s all. (721127 - Lecture BG 02.23 - Hyderabad)

Governing Body Commission. The upheaval of 1970 in ISKCON provided the occasion for Śrīla Prabhupāda to satisfy another unfulfilled desire of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura: the formation of a governing body to manage the whole institution. This instruction was among the final directions imparted by Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura to his disciples in his last days.[63] Disobedience to this order, according to Śrīla Prabhupāda, led to the disintegration of the Gauḍīya Maṭha (CC Ādi 12.8, purport):

In the beginning, during the presence of Oṁ Viṣṇupāda Paramahaṁsa Parivrājakācārya Aṣṭottara-śata Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda, all the disciples worked in agreement; but just after his disappearance, they disagreed. One party strictly followed the instructions of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, but another group created their own concoction about executing his desires. Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, at the time of his departure, requested all his disciples to form a governing body and conduct missionary activities cooperatively. He did not instruct a particular man to become the next ācārya. But just after his passing away, his leading secretaries made plans, without authority, to occupy the post of ācārya, and they split into two factions [the Calcutta "Gauḍīya Mission" and the Mayapura "Gauḍīya Maṭha"] over who the next ācārya would be. Consequently, both factions were asāra, or useless, because they had no authority, having disobeyed the order of the spiritual master. Despite the spiritual master’s order to form a governing body and execute the missionary activities of the Gauḍīya Maṭha, the two unauthorized factions began litigation that is still going on after forty years with no decision.

Therefore, we do not belong to any faction. But because the two parties, busy dividing the material assets of the Gauḍīya Maṭha institution, stopped the preaching work, we took up the mission of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura and Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura to preach the cult of Caitanya Mahāprabhu all over the world, under the protection of all the predecessor ācāryas, and we find that our humble attempt has been successful.

We followed the principles especially explained by Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura in his commentary on the Bhagavad-gītā verse beginning vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana (BG 2.41). According to this instruction of Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, it is the duty of a disciple to follow strictly the orders of his spiritual master. The secret of success in advancement in spiritual life is the firm faith of the disciple in the orders of his spiritual master. . . . . One must judge every action by its result. The members of the self-appointed ācārya’s party who occupied the property of the Gauḍīya Maṭha are satisfied, but they could make no progress in preaching. Therefore by the result of their actions one should know that they are asāra, or useless, whereas the success of the ISKCON party, the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, which strictly follows guru and Gaurāṅga, is increasing daily all over the world.

The establishment of the Governing Body Commission on July 28, 1970 was Śrīla Prabhupāda’s second potent counter-measure against the imp of disunity let loose in ISKCON. The GBC is the type of institution—a committee[64]—that both demands and fosters cooperation. Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s leaders failed to realize such a governing board. Had the Gauḍīya Maṭha not been dismembered by their disobedience, there would have been many disciples of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura working together in the West. In the event, Śrīla Prabhupāda arrived alone, and alone he resuscitated the Krishna Consciousness movement. When godbrothers actively or passively spurned cooperation, he was left no alternative but to be the single ācārya at the head of ISKCON.

Yet his spiritual master himself had asked for a governing board to succeed him at the head of his institution. Śrīla Prabhupāda took this request to heart. Here was another desire of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura left unsatisfied, and Śrīla Prabhupāda, the faithful Sārasvata, undertook to satisfy him: He would establish such a board, oversee its development, and have it ready to act as his successor at the head of ISKCON.

It is customary in India for an ācārya to leave his institution to his chosen successor as a legacy in his will. The action Śrīla Prabhupāda took in 1970—establishing the GBC— allowed him in 1977 to set this down as the first provision of his "Declaration of Will": "The Governing Body Commission (GBC) will be the ultimate managing authority of the entire International Society for Krishna Consciousness." By thus establishing the GBC and leaving it as his chosen successor at the head of ISKCON, Śrīla Prabhupāda insured that the order of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura would continue to work efficaciously in the world and bear fruit.

The final stage in Śrīla Prabhupāda’s installation of the essential components in ISKCON’s spiritual morphology was also initiated around this time. After great difficulty and many setbacks, mainly occasioned by passive and active opposition of godbrothers,[65] Śrīla Prabhupāda was able to purchase land in Māyāpura for ISKCON, and he quickly revealed his plans for a monumental temple there. Writing to Govinda Dāsī from Calcutta (May 28, 1971), he said:

You will be glad to learn that we have purchased about five acres of land in Mayapur, the birthsite of Lord Caitanya and we have proposed to hold a nice festival there from Janmastami day for two weeks. At that time the foundation stone [for the temple] will be set down. I wish that all our leading disciples come to India at that time. There are 50 branches, so at least one from each branch should attend the function . . . . (710528 - Letter to Govinda dasi written from Calcutta)

By performing the ceremony for establishing the temple’s foundation, Śrīla Prabhupāda committed himself to the completion of the structure. As it turned out, the foundationlaying itself was delayed until Gaura Pūrṇimā of 1972, and in the ensuing years many more vicissitudes sent ISKCON leaders repeatedly back to the drawing board. Yet Śrīla Prabhupāda’s own commitment, established in 1972 as if a vow, has proved to contain a potency that has driven the concerted effort over, under, around and through all impediments, and the Temple of the Vedic Planetarium rises on the alluvial soil of Antardvīpa.

Śrīla Prabhupāda gave high priority to acquiring land in Māyāpura for ISKCON’s "world headquarters" and constructing on it an extraordinary temple. Gradually, Śrīla Prabhupāda’s leaders began to grasp its importance for him. For example (SPL 5:9):

During this visit to Calcutta [November, 1971], Prabhupāda had also spoken of his plans for Māyāpur. Nara-Nārāyaṇa had built a scale model of the building ISKCON would construct on the newly acquired property, and Prabhupāda had shown it to all his guests and had asked them to help. Seeing Prabhupāda’s absorption in this project, Girirāja had volunteered to help in any way required. "It seems the two things you want most," Girirāja had said, "are for the books to be distributed and to build a temple at Māyāpur." "Yes," Prabhupāda had said, smiling. "Yes, thank you."

We gain a deeper grasp of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s priority when we understand this temple in light of the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava ecclesiology that lay, as we have seen, at the foundation of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s institution. We have already noted that Śrīla Prabhupāda constructed ISKCON on the basis of that same ecclesiology. In the Gauḍīya Maṭha institution, the Śrī Caitanya Maṭha in Māyāpura is the central or "parent" temple and all others are its branches: "The distinction between the Gaudiya Math [in Calcutta] and Sri Chaitanya Math is all analogous to that between one lamp lighted by another," The Harmonist article explains (with an allusion to Brahmasaṁhitā 5.46). The central temple, being located in Māyāpura, the descended spiritual realm (Śvetadvīpa), is really the visible mundane complement or counterpart of its transcendentally located original, where the Lord and the ācārya dwell eternally together. The diverse branches are places for training aspirants for service in the place of the ācārya in the transcendent Māyāpura. The central or parent temple of the institution, being thus located on the border, as it were, between two realms, serves as a kind of gateway. Its associated branches, though dispersed further throughout the mundane realm, by virtue of their links with the center also function in themselves as gateways.

Situated at the center, the Śrī Caitanya Maṭha teaches by its very architecture with its embellishments and appurtenances, the spiritual science which sets forth the unified principle that make such a gateway possible: acintya-bhedābheda-tattva. The paved parikramā path around the central dome brings the circumambulating visitor around to encounter, one after another, the forms of the four Vaiṣṇava Founder-Ācāryas, each within his own shrine set into the outward body of the dome. They are spaced evenly around the base of the dome, but the structure itself draws them together around Śrī Caitanya Maṭha.

Each of these Founder-Ācāryas propounded a specific teaching concerning the relationship between the Lord and his energies. While each doctrine is sound, it is also incomplete, asserts Niśikānta Sānyāl in Sree Krishna Chaitanya. But the teaching of Lord Caitanya—formalized as acintya-bhedābhedatattva—"reconciles, harmonizes and perfects them" (SKC 164). The temple embodies this Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava teaching and so presents the case—so thoroughly advanced in Sree Krishna Chaitanya—that Mahāprabhu, the yuga-avatāra, offers the consummation and the fulfillment of theism.

The ISKCON Temple of the Vedic Planetarium presents the same teaching portrayed by the Śrī Caitanya Maṭha in a more detailed and more comprehensive manner. On a cosmological scale, it maps, models, and illustrates the realized truth of acintyabhedābheda-tattva: that nothing is different from Kṛṣṇa, yet Kṛṣṇa is different from everything.[66] Within the main dome of the temple we see the cosmos displayed as it discloses itself to those who experience it with unoccluded perception: as pervaded by and connected to Kṛṣṇa as the Lord’s own potencies. The temple thus counters the two kinds of widespread false perception, both of which separate Kṛṣṇa from His energies. One is the way of monism or impersonalism (nirviśeṣa-vāda), which denies the reality of the divine energies and relegates both the personality of Godhead and the creation to illusion. The other is the way of materialism or nihilism (śūnya-vāda), which recognizes only the energies, which have no origin or foundation.

Displaying the connections between the Lord and the creation, the temple can provide a kind of map of the pathway to divinity (together with the various way stations, detours, and diversions). Set into the inner wall of the dome, ascending concentric galleries offer the visitor a sequence of artistically rendered representations of the regions encountered on the cosmic journey by Gopa-kumāra, passing through multiple material and spiritual realms to Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana, as depicted by Sanātana Gosvāmī in Bṛhad-Bhāgavatāmṛta. The temple thus previews the ultimate ascent that draws all sentient life onward.

It is the last of the five steps by Śrīla Prabhupāda, all accomplished by 1972, that puts all core components of ISKCON in place. The temple completes the whole spiritual structure of the visible ISKCON. The centers and temples scattered throughout the world are joined together in a network that converges on the center at Śrīdhāma Māyāpura. Like the widely spread roots of a tree that draw water to the central trunk, Śrīla Prabhupāda’s ISKCON brings conditioned souls to Māyāpura, where the central temple opens a gateway to the vertical dimension, that, like a tree-trunk, soars upward to branch out luxuriantly in the spiritual sky.

This is the work of a Founder-Ācārya. A Founder-Ācārya opens an avenue that leads through the cosmos and crosses over into transcendence. Having laid out the illustrious path—from the beginning root tip to ending leaf tip—the Founder-Ācārya makes provision for its regular maintenance and for the trained guides who will direct, protect, and encourage those who traverse it. He continuously oversees its functioning as long as there are those who act under his direction. In a sense, this lane to the land of the living is identical with its own craftsman. Naming his construction ISKCON, Śrīla Prabhupāda engineered it so that this entirely spiritual artifact should be manifest not only to the wise (who recognize what they see), but even to the foolish (who cannot). Especially for them, he assembled a vast array of visible entrances to the path, spread in a network covering the world. All converge on the center in Antardvīpa, where the map of the luminous path—in cosmological cartography—is marvelously displayed, and each step of the journey into transcendence finely depicted. Thus the temple discloses itself as a cosmic portal or gateway leading through the heavens and into the eternal realms of Kṛṣṇa.[67]

In the ISKCON temples and centers, Śrīla Prabhupāda’s specially placed mūrtis indicate his guardianship over the entranceways onto the path. At their convergence point in Navadvīpa-dhāma, Śrīla Prabhupāda’s presiding presence over all of earthly ISKCON is proclaimed by his radiant form of gold in his puṣpa-samādhi; from that coign of vantage he surveys the entrance of the great temple, gateway to the ultimate passage. And then, at the passage’s terminus in Śvetadvīpa, Śrīla Prabhupāda himself presides to welcome and gather the new arrivals into the everlasting transcendent ISKCON of gaura-līlā. [68] In this way, Śrīla Prabhupāda’s spiritual thoroughfare conveys the recovered and rescued jīvas safely to the highest destination.

Our Founder-Ācārya marked the beginning of his project with his first book, Easy Journey to Other Planets, and he continued his effort through the writing, printing and distributing of books and the simultaneous construction of a worldwide institution. His handiwork continues and now is at last crowned with its consolidating apex, the Temple of the Vedic Planetarium, which unifies both Bhāgavatam and Bhāgavata, book and person. It marks the core and center of the Founder-Ācārya’s creation, and it indicates the location of the true world-axis at sacred Śrīdhāma Māyāpura, the descended spiritual realm.

The "four Founder-Acharyas of the Iron Age" each formulated an explication of Vedānta that recovered the theistic, Vaiṣṇava understanding of Vedavyāsa, and each energetically taught it and trained others to do so. In this way the illusive facade of impersonalism was dismantled, and the veridical Vedic siddhānta became propagated throughout India. In Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura’s depiction, the four were preparing the way for the yuga-avatāra Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who was to make the most highly confidential revelation of the Vedas open and accessible to all through saṅkīrtana. Mahāprabhu inspired his closest associates to systematically formulate his teaching as acintya-bhedābheda-tattva, which included and completed the systems of the Founder-Ācāryas. These intimate associates of Mahāprabhu bore the special title of "Prabhupāda."

Now two more followers of Mahāprabhu have appeared who also bear the title "Prabhupāda"—Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda and A.C. Bhaktivedānta Swami Prabhupāda. The first practically formulated the strategy and tactics for systematic worldwide propagation of Mahāprabhu’s movement; the second carried his plan to completion. Within the Gauḍīya Maṭha institution, the title "Founder-Ācārya" had been prepared for Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda to assume, but circumstantially he could not complete his plans himself and establish Kṛṣṇa consciousness in the Western countries. In his name, however, A.C. Bhaktivedānta Swami Prabhupāda, having understood the heart of his spiritual master, picked up where Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura left off and in twelve eventful years established the yuga-dharma throughout the world. In this way, the compassionate efforts of the four Founder-Ācāryas were, by the mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and his instruments, expanded and completed by one more who bears that title.

The extraordinary achievements of Śrīla Prabhupāda certainly make him worthy of the title, but it does not, in this case, imply that he originated a "new sampradāya." By faithfully transmitting the teachings and practices as he received them in the Gauḍīyasampradāya, he continued the tradition. Nevertheless, Śrīla Prabhupāda transmitted his received tradition with a distinct and decisive articulation, uniquely his own, as the fruit of his realized knowledge. Consequently, under his direction the Gauḍīya-sampradāya, in his refreshed and revitalized reiteration, has been able to extend beyond its natal ground, to sink down roots around the globe, and so to flourish everywhere.

The Gauḍīya-sampradāya appears historically as a branch of the Brahmā-Madhva-sampradāya because Lord Caitanya—in reality the one fountainhead of all four sampradāyas—appeared as a devotee (bhakta-rūpa). As such, He sought and accepted proper Vaiṣṇava initiation into one of the four authorized sampradāyas. However, His teaching, systematized and expounded by the Six Gosvāmīs, were so clearly distinct from the standard teaching of the Madhvite community into which He was initiated, that the followers of Mahāprabhu naturally became recognized as a distinct community or sampradāya. Challenged, as such, to establish its bona fides, Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa successfully responded by producing a Gauḍīya-vaiṣṇava commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra, the Govinda-bhāṣya. Thus there was formal acknowledgment of the Gauḍīya-sampradāya as distinct from the others early in the eighteenth century.

Even so, the Gauḍīya-sampradāya has a special status, and we cannot regard it simply as a new sampradāya, taking its place as one more among many. Rather, the Gauḍīya-sampradāya, correctly understood, should be recognized as the unified completion and fulfillment of the four earlier sampradāyas of Kali-yuga. Such is the understanding propounded by the realization—and revelation—of Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, documented by him in his visionary Śrī Navadvīpa-dhāmamāhātmya of 1890. There Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura offers a detailed account—as of an eyewitness—of Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī performing (soon after the disappearance of Lord Caitanya) navadvīpaparikramā under the guidance of Prabhu Nityānanda. In the course of their excursion, Nityānanda Prabhu relates to Śrī Jīva how each of the four Founder-Ācāryas of Kali-yuga, while themselves on pilgrimage to Jagannātha Purī or Navadvīpa, is favored with a confidential revelation of the future advent of the yuga-avatāra. [69] Binding them to secrecy, Lord Caitanya uplifts and inspires each of them to work so as to prepare the way for His future advent. For example, the Lord appears in a dream to Madhvācārya and tells him (NDM 68):

Everyone knows you are my eternal servant. When I appear in Navadvīpa, I will accept your sampradāya. Now, go everywhere and carefully uproot all the false scriptures of the māyāvādīs. Reveal the glories to worshiping the Deity of the Lord. Later, I will broadcast your pure teachings.

When Lord Caitanya appears to Nimbāditya (or Nimbārka), the Lord discloses how in the future He will unveil a consummate teaching that will include, sublate, unify, and complete the teaching of each of the four Founder-Ācāryas (NDM 73):

Later, when I begin the saṅkīrtana movement, I Myself will preach the essence of the four Vaiṣṇava philosophies. From Madhva I will receive two essential items: his complete defeat of the Māyāvāda philosophy, and his service to the Deity of Kṛṣṇa, accepting the Deity as an eternal spiritual being. From Rāmānuja I will accept two great teachings: the concept of bhakti unpolluted by karma and jñāna, and service to the devotees. From Viṣṇusvāmī’s teachings I will accept two main elements: the sentiment of excusive dependence on Kṛṣṇa, and the path of rāga-bhakti. And from you I will receive two excellent principles: the necessity of taking shelter of Rādhā, and the high esteem for the gopīs’ love of Kṛṣṇa.

In conclusion, the advent of Lord Caitanya is itself the consummation of the four sampradāyas. That consummation heralds a new beginning, with Mahāprabhu as the originator of an unprecedentedly magnanimous revelation, with the Six Gosvāmīs as the first receivers and transmitters of that revelation, and with Śrīla Prabhupāda as the ācārya who founded and developed a global community of kṛṣṇa-bhaktas, who christened that community as the "International Society for Krishna Consciousness," who energized the society so engendered with the life-force of his realized knowledge, and who established its foremost temple at its world headquarters in Antardvīpa, the descended Śvetadvīpa, from which his society conveys the revelation of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya to the world, and the world back to Him.

Śrīla Prabhupāda’s realized knowledge. It is our good fortune that Śrīla Prabhupāda was quite open in sharing with us how he gained his realized knowledge and how that knowledge enabled him to fulfill the desire of his spiritual master and establish Lord Caitanya’s movement as a global venture. Śrīla Prabhupāda offered one remarkable disclosure in 1968 at the temple in Los Angeles, occasioned by the observance of the disappearance of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura. Looking at the rows of young American faces lifted up to him, Śrīla Prabhupāda wondered out loud:

I was born in a different family; my Guru Mahārāja was born in a different family. Who knew that I will come to his protection? Who knew that I would come in America? Who knew that you American boys will come to me? These are all Kṛṣṇa’s arrangement. We cannot understand how things are taking place.

But then, Śrīla Prabhupāda goes on to tell how his presence that day in Los Angeles came about.

In 1936—today is ninth December, 1968—that means thirty-two years ago, in Bombay, I was then doing some business: All of a sudden—perhaps on this date, sometimes between ninth or tenth of December (at that time, Guru Mahārāja was indisposed little, and he was staying at Jagannātha Purī, on the seashore)—so, I wrote him a letter: "My dear master, your other disciples— brahmacārī, sannyāsī—they are rendering you direct service. And I am a householder: I cannot live with you, I cannot serve you nicely. So I do not know. How can I serve you?" Simply an idea: I was thinking of serving him, "How can I serve him seriously?"

The seed from which all else grew was "simply an idea." Discontent with his occupation in business, feeling himself incapacitated by the obligations of his āśrama, on an impulse ("all of a sudden") Prabhupāda wrote his Guru Mahārāja with a plea, a cry from the heart. He felt himself locked in a position which made proper service impossible, yet still the desire to do it was there. So he confessed his desire and his frustration to his spiritual master.

Prabhupāda continues:

So the reply was dated 13 December, 1936. In that letter he wrote, "My dear such and such, I am very glad to receive your letter. I think you should try to push our movement in English." That was his writing. "And that will do good to you and to the people who will help you." That was his instruction. And then in 1936, on the thirty-first of December—that means just after writing this letter a fortnight before his departure—he passed away. But I took that order of my spiritual master very seriously, but I did not think that I’ll have to do such and such thing. I was at that time a householder. But this is the arrangement of Kṛṣṇa. If we strictly try to serve the spiritual master, his order, then Kṛṣṇa will give us all facilities. That is the secret. Although there was no possibility—I never thought—.

It was a startling, an unexpected, an incongruous, an entirely improbable order. "Push on our movement in English": that was, in fact, the cutting edge of the Gauḍīya Maṭha’s preaching. It meant: Go to the West—to Europe, to America. It was a wellknown order, already conveyed to many leaders, sannyāsīs and brahmacārīs, in the Gauḍīya Maṭha. But now the recipient was a householder doing business in Bombay, entangled in domestic and commercial matters, helping out the temple as much as he could. He was, as we say today, a "congregational member." Prabhupāda confesses that he could not envision any concrete circumstances in which it could be realized. ("I did not think that I’ll have to do such and such thing," "Although there was no possibility—I never thought—".) Nevertheless, he took it "very seriously." At the same time, it was the last direct communication he received from his spiritual master. That gave it even more weight. (And he surely remembered this order echoed the request he received on his very first meeting with Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, fourteen years previously.) So he understood he must take it seriously, even though he was initially baffled: How in the world will it happen? As it turns out, it happened by "the arrangement of Kṛṣṇa."

Yet something more is still required. For what prompts Kṛṣṇa to make such an arrangement? The seriousness of the disciple. "If we strictly try to serve the spiritual master, his order, then Kṛṣṇa will give us all facilities. That is the secret."[70] This is Śrīla Prabhupāda’s "realized knowledge."

Now Prabhupāda goes to tell us how—again by Kṛṣṇa’s arrangement—he learned this secret:

Although there was no possibility—I never thought— but I took it little seriously by studying a commentary by Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura on the Bhagavad-gītā. In the Bhagavad-gītā there is the verse, vyavasāyātmikābuddhir ekeha kuru-nandana. In connection with that verse, Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura gives his commentary that we should take up the words from the spiritual master as our life and soul. We should try to carry out the instruction, the specific instruction of the spiritual master, very rigidly, without caring for our personal benefit or loss.

Here is the immediate source of Prabhupāda’s inspiration: the realization he received from reading Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura’s commentary on Bhagavad-gītā 2.41. It was the key that unlocked the order of his spiritual master. It became the foundation of his life and achievement, the "only secret" of his success. Again and again, Prabhupāda directly and indirectly refers to this defining moment of his life,[71] when he was granted the realization to make the total commitment that, come what may, he would make the order of his spiritual master his life and soul. Because of that commitment alone, Kṛṣṇa has brought him to America and given him success:

So I tried a little bit in that spirit. So he has given me all facilities to serve him. Things have come to this stage, that in this old age I have come to your country, and you are also taking this movement seriously, trying to understand it. We have got some books now. So there is little foothold of this movement.

Now Prabhupāda requests his own disciples to enact the same commitment to his order that he has evinced to that of his Guru Mahārāja:

So on this occasion of my spiritual master’s departure, as I am trying to execute his will, similarly, I shall also request you to execute the same order through my will. I am an old man, I can also pass away at any moment. That is nature’s law. Nobody can check it. So that is not very astonishing, but my appeal to you on this auspicious day of the departure of my Guru Mahārāja, that at least to some extent you have understood the essence of Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. You should try to push it on. (681209 - Lecture Festival Disappearance Day, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati - Los Angeles)

"Execute his will" is a play on words. The expression means, of course, to carry out the order of some one, but it is also the formal legal term to refer to the process by which a person’s assets become those of his heirs. By his commitment to execute Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī’s will, Śrīla Prabhupāda inherited from him his specific potency to spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness. On this occasion Śrīla Prabhupāda is now making his will: "I shall also request you to execute the same order through my will. I am an old man." By his will, Prabhupāda has made us his heirs. He imparts, as his legacy, the instructions that, if accepted, transfers to us the same potency to deliver people to the shelter of Kṛṣṇa’s feet.

"I shall also request you to execute the same order through my will:" This is an extraordinary moment; it is the act of transmission of spiritual potency, by which we all can become empowered just as Śrīla Prabhupāda himself became empowered. Then Śrīla Prabhupāda tells us what "that same order" is:

. . . . at least to some extent you have understood the essence of Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. You should try to push it on. People are suffering for want of this consciousness. As we daily pray about devotees:

vāñchā-kalpatarubhyaś ca kṛpā-sindhubhya eva ca

patitānāṁ pāvanebhyo vaiṣṇavebhyo namo namaḥ

A Vaiṣṇava, or devotee of Lord, his life is dedicated for the benefit of the people. You know—most of you belong to Christian community—how Lord Jesus Christ, he said that for your sinful activities he has sacrificed himself. That is the determination of devotee of the Lord. They don’t care for personal comforts. Because they love Kṛṣṇa or God, therefore they love all living entities because all living entities are in relationship with Kṛṣṇa. So similarly you should learn. This Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement means to become Vaiṣṇava and feel for the suffering humanity.

The order he received in the form "push on our movement in English" is now retransmitted to us in the form "become Vaiṣṇavas and feel for the suffering of humanity." Śrīla Prabhupāda took this to heart, as the song instructs:

guru-mukha-padma-vākya, cittete kariyā aikya,
āra nā kariha mane āśā

"Make the words from the lotus mouth of Śrī Gurudeva one with your heart; aspire for nothing else."

The achievement of Śrīla Prabhupāda is proof of the potency of these instructions. Many others had received the same order from Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, but in the event, the demonstration of vyavasāyātmikā-buddhi was his alone.

Hence, Prabhupāda founded a new organization that, as a whole and in its every part, would embody and develop that realization—a realization that manifests itself as an unwavering, indefatigable commitment to deliver pure love of God to suffering humanity everywhere.

Suffering humanity. The acute feeling for human suffering— so prominent in Śrīla Prabhupāda’s inheritance from Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura—possesses a natural ramification: an urgent need to muster and deploy all resources together—material, personnel, finances, infrastructure, organization—to deliver as much relief as possible in the shortest possible time. Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s innovation was to create a unified, coordinated institution that could accomplish this. When the voluntary service of devotees was rationally organized and coordinated, its effective energy, thus consolidated and concentrated, became hugely multiplied.

The institution that would be able to act on this commitment with united force over large spans of space and time needs a unique form. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Gosvāmī therefore called for an organization in which the ultimate authority would reside not in the person of a single autocratic ācārya but rather in a board of directors, which he called the "Governing Body Commission." In the event, the Gauḍīya Maṭha failed to realize this structure, and so, Prabhupāda said, became "useless."

A board of directors. A board of directors is a modern Western institution for joint management and oversight. Śrīla Prabhupāda put into place the standard, generally familiar, elements of such an organization: the annual general meeting, resolutions adopted by a majority of the voting members, following rules of formal parliamentary procedure (as given in Robert’s Rule of Order), the adopted resolution recorded into a minutes book by the secretary, and so on.

The "single autocratic ācārya" exemplifies an older, more basic, and perhaps more instinctively natural, form of organization. It has, of course, become a standard arrangement in Indian culture, developing originally out of, say, a sannyāsī and his brahmacārī students.

When over time institutions grow up around a single powerful, charismatic teacher or leader, a result of the gradual accumulation of followers, land, temples, housing, and wealthy patronage, then the person at the top needs to be spiritually advanced in order not to fall victim to the temptations of power, money, fame, and the like. At the same time, the prospect of controlling and enjoying such assets may attract precisely the wrong kind of person—who must of course feign indifference to such things. In these cases, hypocrisy, faultfinding, backstabbing, underhanded dealing, etc., may become endemic, and institutions tend toward disintegration.

The advantage of a governing board is that power is more dispersed, and the members act to check and balance each other. The institution is inherently more stable: If at some time there is no single outstanding charismatic leader, the institution continues. On the other hand, the existence of two or more supremely qualified leaders can be smoothly accommodated. With a governing board they become an asset—the more the merrier. But if there is a single head, two or more highly qualified leaders will leave all but one under-engaged or unfulfilled, a condition that will foster schisms.

Thus a governing board is more stable, stronger and far more resilient than a single ācārya. But what if there are a number of exceptionally empowered—let’s call them "self-effulgent"— ācāryas on that board? Will they pull things apart? No: If they are indeed elevated in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then they will be certain to exemplify the principle of cooperative service at the lotus feet of Śrīla Prabhupāda and make the governing board all the stronger.

Our Central Challenge

Śrīla Prabhupāda established such a structure for ISKCON, putting the Governing Body Commission in place in 1970 and overseeing its gradual articulation and development. Stating that he wanted there to be "hundreds and thousands of spiritual masters" within ISKCON, he implied that the normative guru-disciple relationship would be perpetuated within the unified institution under the direction of the GBC. In such an organization, many gurus would be able to act with concerted force, operating together with other leaders and managers in collegial accord.

Hundreds and thousands of spiritual masters. In New York on August 17, 1966, while speaking on Bhagavad-gītā 4.34-38, Śrīla Prabhupāda said:

So there is no bar for anyone, that one cannot become the spiritual master. Everyone can become spiritual master, provided he knows the science of Kṛṣṇa. . . . This is the science of Kṛṣṇa, this Bhagavad-gītā. If anyone knows perfectly, then he becomes the spiritual master. . . . So we require hundreds and thousands of spiritual masters who has understood this Kṛṣṇa science. And preach all over the world. . . . . Therefore we have formed this society and we invite all sincere souls to take part in the society and become a spiritual master, and preach this science all over the world. (660815 - Lecture BG 04.34-38 - New York)

Śrīla Prabhupāda explained his expectation to Tuṣṭa-kṛṣṇa (VB: Correspondence, Dec. 2, 1975):

Every student is expected to become Acarya. Acarya means one who knows the scriptural injunctions and follows them practically in life, and teaches them to his disciples. . . . Keep trained up very rigidly and then you are bona fide Guru, and you can accept disciples on the same principle. But as a matter of etiquette it is the custom that during the lifetime of your Spiritual master you bring the prospective disciples to him, and in his absence or disappearance you can accept disciples without any limitation. This is the law of disciplic succession. I want to see my disciples become bona fide Spiritual Master and spread Krishna consciousness very widely, that will make me and Krishna very happy.

Śrīla Prabhupāda stated on these and many other occasions the need of huge numbers of gurus, and his desire that "every student" help meet that need. Since he very much wanted his disciples and followers to remain within ISKCON, he envisioned a vast increase in spiritual and material force generated by the efficiencies and mutual reinforcements of cooperative service. By working and preaching together in a concerted, organized fashion, our internal and external power become far more than the sum of that of the individual parts.

After all, our practice is saṅkīrtana, not just kīrtana, and the full import of the prefix saṁ—indicating not only union, but also thoroughness, intensity and completeness—needs realization.

Yet as long as Prabhupāda was present as the sole ācārya and dīkṣā guru, the structure necessarily remained in embryonic form, a child still in the womb of its mother, its form and function necessarily not fully developed. During Prabhupāda’s manifest presence, by the very nature of the situation, the GBC clearly could not assume its full role as the "ultimate managing authority," and Prabhupāda remained the only guru. Therefore the completed product of Prabhupāda’s work had to await its time to be manifest.

Consequently, Prabhupāda has left to us the task, after his departure, of fully articulating the form and functions of ISKCON for effective action in the world. One central challenge is to integrate the guru-disciple relationship—which carries its own proper demand for deep loyalty and commitment to the person of the guru—within a larger society that demands, in a certain sense, a higher, all-encompassing, loyalty. That loyalty is our common fidelity to our Founder-Ācārya Śrīla Prabhupāda, a loyalty proven in practice by our cooperation with each other, within the structure he bequeathed us, to fulfill his deepest desire.

Our cooperation with each other. The foundation of cooperation is love. "A whole society is carrying my order, not because I am superior person," said Śrīla Prabhupāda (Philosophy Discussion on Arthur Schopenhauer).

There is love. Without love, you cannot do so. You have got some bit of love for me, therefore you carry my order. Otherwise it is not possible. And I cannot also. You are foreigners, you are Americans; I came from another country. I have no [bank] account. I cannot also order you: "You must do it, otherwise I will chastise you." Because there is love. It is a connection of love. I can also become bold enough to chastise you, but you also, in whatever condition you carry my order due to the basic principle is love. And our whole philosophy is love.[72]

On May 23, 1977, Śrīla Prabhupāda made a well-know statement about the test of our love.

As recorded by Tamāla Kṛṣṇa Goswami:

Śrīla Prabhupāda emphasized, "Your love for me will be tested how after my departure you maintain this institution. We have glamour and people are feeling our weight. This should be maintained. Not like Gauḍīya Math. After Guru Mahārāja’s departure so many ācaryās came up."[73]

Bhakti Charu Swami was present when Śrīla Prabhupāda made this statement. He recalls:

When Srila Prabhupada was in Vrindavan during his last days, Tamal Krsna Maharaja used to read out loud the letters that devotees wrote to Srila Prabhupada, and His Divine Grace used to dictate his replies, and sometimes he also used to make some comments. Once one devotee wrote how he wanted to offer his longevity to Srila Prabhupada so that he could continue to be with us on this planet. It was a very sweet letter, steeped with emotion. However, Srila Prabhupada reacted in a rather unusual way and commented that our real love for him would be shown by how we cooperate with each other to continue his mission. That incident left a very deep impression in my heart, and I became aware that the best way to show my love for Srila Prabhupada is through my cooperation with the devotees of ISKCON who are serving His Divine Grace so sincerely to continue his mission.[74]

In his final days, Śrīla Prabhupāda asked from us a more compelling proof of love than heartfelt expressions, however sincere. This, he says, will convince him: Our cooperation with one another to advance his mission after his departure.

This standard established by Śrīla Prabhupāda—actions that disclose far more than ardent words— also expresses the essence of the vāṇī-sevā by which we attain and sustain association with Śrīla Prabhupāda.

Furthermore, to cooperate together to spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness is the very meaning of saṇkīrtana. Śrīla Prabhupāda has explained this wonderfully:

The purport of the verse is that even Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu—He is God himself, Kṛṣṇa Himself—He felt, alone, unable to do this task. He felt. So this is the position. You are cooperating; therefore I am getting the credit. Otherwise alone what could I do? Ekākī āmāra nāhi pāya bolo. Caitanya Mahāprabhu Himself wanted our cooperation. He is God, Kṛṣṇa. And therefore cooperation is very important thing. Nobody should think that "I have got so great ability. I can do." No. It is simply by cooperation we can do very big thing. "United we stand; divided we fall." This is our. . . . So be strong in pushing on Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and Kṛṣṇa will help. He is the strongest. Still, we must be combined together. Saṅkīrtana. Saṅkīrtana means many men combined together chanting. That is saṅkīrtana. Otherwise kīrtana. Saṅkīrtana. Bahubhir militvā kīrtayatīti saṅkīrtanam. Bahu: bahu means many, many combined together. That is Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s mission, combined together.[75]

After two influential leaders had left ISKCON, Śrīla Prabhupāda gave this counsel to Babhru Dāsa on December 9, 1973. May it always remain in our hearts:

Now, we have by Krsna’s Grace built up something significant in the shape of this ISKCON and we are all one family. Sometimes there may be disagreement and quarrel but we should not go away. These inebrieties can be adjusted by the cooperative spirit, tolerance and maturity so I request you to kindly remain in the association of our devotees and work together. The test of our actual dedication and sincerity to serve the Spiritual Master will be in this mutual cooperative spirit to push on this Movement and not make factions and deviate. (731209 - Letter to Babhru written from Los Angeles)

We discovered that the initial "zonal-ācārya" system of integrating the guru into a broad structure implicitly created geographical zones that were individually more unified than ISKCON as a whole. The integrity of ISKCON came in to jeopardy. That system has been abolished. Yet we need to go much further in realizing the organization Śrīla Prabhupāda wanted.

We need to go much further. We look forward to establishing a culture in ISKCON of committed cooperative servitorship under Śrīla Prabhupāda. When this becomes established as a culture, each and every member—top to bottom— shares equally in it. It is so thoroughly part of the essence of existence in the Krishna Consciousness movement that it dwells even in the smallest gesture. Children take it in with their mother’s milk. It is all pervading. We will be perpetually in the presence of Śrīla Prabhupāda—and of those in whose presence he dwells.

and distribute?" In his purport, Śrīla Prabhupāda points out: "Here Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu indicates that the distribution of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra should be performed by combined forces."

It is interesting to note that two prominent anti-ISKCON movements—often claiming to be the "real ISKCON"—have formed by specific rejection of one or the other component of Prabhupāda’s whole: the "ritvik" position wishes to do away with actual gurus in favor of GBC institutional authority, while the followers of one prominent sannyāsī or another wish to eliminate an actual GBC and rely on the charismatic, autocratic single ācārya.

Specific rejection of one or the other component. As we learn from the Gauḍīya Maṭha, it is clearly a challenge to get it right. We now have our own schismatic groups, and we should treat them as Śrīla Prabhupāda did the remnant factions of the Gauḍīya Maṭha: With a clear and incisive understanding of their deviations; with a generous, well-wishing attitude; and with endless patience.

ISKCON needs to foster both elements: an intense common loyalty to ISKCON and the GBC, and the deep and full teaching relationship between individual gurus and disciples within ISKCON. We need to realize how there is no contradiction and no conflict. We need to realize how they reinforce and support each other.

'A crucial element in establishing this necessary synthesis is achieving a deep understanding of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s position and putting that understanding into action—both jñāna and vijñāna. As Founder-Ācārya, Śrīla Prabhupāda himself symbolizes—and, in a sense, is—the unity of ISKCON. Therefore he must become an inescapable predominate felt presence in the lives of all devotees, no matter who else may serve as their dīkṣā or śikṣā gurus. Gurus still manifest in the world tend to make a more vivid impact on their followers than those now unmanifest in form. Because Śrīla Prabhupāda’s person is now unmanifest as such, this absence of vapu needs to be compensated for by an ever-deepening realization of his manifestation as vāṇi (as he himself taught).

Understanding Śrīla Prabhupāda’s position. It is hoped that the present paper will be one among many more that aim to foster ever-deepening understanding of Śrīla Prabhupāda as FounderĀcārya and ever-increasing devoted service to him.

Such presence needs to become so much a part of the fabric of ISKCON, to become the essential savor of its culture, that his presence will not diminish even when all who personally knew Śrīla Prabhupāda follow him from this world.

His presence will not diminish. Culture has been defined by anthropologists as the sum total of learned behavior of a group that is transmitted from generation to generation. The great gift to posterity each generation of ISKCON can give is the gift of Śrīla Prabhupāda.

Outcomes

There will be many consequences when Śrīla Prabhupāda’s position as Founder-Ācārya is realized. Among them:

Generation after generation will be enabled to receive the special mercy offered by Śrīla Prabhupāda. The path back to Godhead he opened will become ever-increasingly travelled.
By taking full shelter of Śrīla Prabhupāda as śikṣā guru in his vāṇi manifestation, all teachers in ISKCON, on various levels of advancement, will be able to authentically convey Śrīla Prabhupāda’s real teaching, thus giving proper guidance, shelter, and protection to all.
Śrīla Prabhupāda’s active presence will secure the unity and integrity of ISKCON.
ISKCON’s teachings will remain consistent over space and time.
Śrīla Prabhupāda’s realized knowledge—endowing him with the specific potency to spread Kṛṣṇa consciousness— will not only be preserved but also developed.
His books will remain central to us, for they contain insights and directions that await future development to be realized.
Śrīla Prabhupāda’s eyes will always remain the lens through which all future generations see our predecessor ācāryas.

ABBREVIATIONS

BG: Bhagavad-gītā
BS: Brahma-saṁhitā
CB: Caitanya Bhagavat
CC: Caitanya-caritāmṛita
BTG: Back to Godhead
HKE: The Hare Krishna Explosion
Harm: The Harmonist
Kṛṣṇa: Kṛṣṇa, The Supreme Personality of Godhead
MHP: Modern Hindu Personalism
NDM: Navadvīpa-dhāma-māhātmya
SS: Servant of the Servant
SKC: Sree Krishna Caitanya
SBV: Śrī Bhaktisiddhānta Vaibhava
SPL: Śrīla Prabhupāda-lilamrita
SB: Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam
TKG: TKG’s Diary
VB: VedaBase

WORKS CITED

Back to Godhead. Accessed October 8, 2013. http:///www.backtogodhead.in.

Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Goswami Ṭhākura. Śrī Brahma-saṁhitā. Bombay: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1991.

Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda, A.C.. Bhagavad Gītā As It Is. Los Angeles: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1989.

———. Kṛṣṇa: The Supreme Personality of Godhead. Los Angeles: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, 1996.

———. Śrī Caitanya Caritāmrita of Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī. Botany: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1996.

———. Śrīmad Bhāgavatam. Los Angeles: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1976.

Bhaktivedanta VedaBase: The Complete Teaching of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Founder-Acarya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. CD-ROM, 2003.1. Bhaktivedanta Archives.

Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura. Śrī Navadvīpa-dhāma Māhātmya. Translated by Bhānu Swami. n.p., n.d.

Dasa, Hayagriva. The Hare Krishna Explosion. Singapore: Palace Press, 1985.

Following Srila Prabhupada: DVD 1, compiled by Yadubara Dāsa, British Columbia, Canada: ISKCON Cinema, 2006.

Goswami, Satsvarūpa dāsa. Śrīla Prabhupāda-līlāmṛta: A Biography of His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda. 6 vols. Los Angeles: Bhakivedanta Book Trust, 1980-1983.

Goswami, Tamal Krishna. Servant of the Servant. Los Angeles: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1984.

———. TKG’s Diary. Dallas: Pundits Press, 1998.

Harmonist, The. Edited by Sri Srimad Bhakti Siddhanta Sarasvati Goswami Maharaj. Vols. 24-33. Calcutta: Sri Gaudiya Math, 1927- 1936. Note: The Bhaktivedanta Research Centre holds a collection of original issues of The Harmonist, bound in ten volumes. (This collection was previously part of the library of Sundarānanda Vidyāvinoda.) In the 8th bound volume (containing Volume 32 of The Harmonist), there are no issues 22 and 24. The 9th bound volume, containing Volume 33, holds only four issues, two for November and two for December 1936. The 10th and final bound volume, containing The Harmonist Volume 34 (1937), holds six issues—published after the demise of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura—beginning in August and ending in November.

Sanyal, Nisikanta. Sree Krishna Chaitanya. Vol. 1. Royapettah, Madras: Sree Gaudiya Math, 1933.

Sardella, Ferdinando. Modern Hinduism Personalism: The History, Life, and Thought of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Sraman, Bhakitikusum. Prabhupāda Srila Sarasvati Thākura. Māyāpur: Śrī Caitanya Maṭha, 1982.

Swami, Bhakti Vikāsa. Śrī Bhaktisiddhānta Vaibhava: The Grandeur and Glory of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura. 3 vols. Surat, India: Bhakti Vikas Trust, 2009.

GLOSSARY

ACCORD: AGREEMENT OR HARMONY.

ADROIT: SKILLFUL IN USING THE HANDS OR MIND; DEXTEROUS, ACTIVE, CLEVER.

AEGIS: THE PROTECTION, BACKING, OR SUPPORT OF A PARTICULAR PERSON OR ORGANIZATION.

ALLEGORY: DESCRIPTION OF A SUBJECT UNDER THE GUISE OF SOME OTHER SUBJECT OF APTLY SUGGESTIVE RESEMBLANCE; A STORY, POEM, OR PICTURE THAT CAN BE INTERPRETED TO REVEAL A HIDDEN MEANING, TYPICALLY A MORAL OR POLITICAL ONE; A SYMBOL.

ALLUSION: IMPLIED, OR INDIRECT REFERENCE; AN EXPRESSION DESIGNED TO CALL SOMETHING TO MIND WITHOUT MENTIONING IT EXPLICITLY; AN INDIRECT OR PASSING REFERENCE.

ALLUVIAL: OF, PERTAINING TO, OR CONSISTING OF ALLUVIUM; DEPOSITED FROM FLOWING WATER; OR PERTAINING TO SUCH A DEPOSIT.

ANALOGOUS: COMPARABLE IN CERTAIN RESPECTS, TYPICALLY IN A WAY THAT MAKES CLEARER THE NATURE OF THE THINGS COMPARED.

ANALOGUE: AN ANALOGOUS WORD OR THING; A REPRESENTATIVE IN DIFFERENT CIRCUMSTANCES OR SITUATION; SOMETHING PERFORMING A CORRESPONDING PART.

ANOMALY: SOMETHING THAT DEVIATES FROM WHAT IS STANDARD, NORMAL, OR EXPECTED.

ANTIPATHY: FEELING AGAINST, HOSTILE FEELING TOWARDS; CONSTITUTIONAL OR SETTLED AVERSION OR DISLIKE.

APHORISM: A PITHY OBSERVATION THAT CONTAINS A GENERAL TRUTH.

APPELLATION: A DESIGNATION, NAME, OR TITLE GIVEN.

APPURTENANCE: A THING WHICH NATURALLY AND FITLY FORMS A SUBORDINATE PART OF, OR BELONGS TO, A WHOLE SYSTEM; A CONTRIBUTORY ADJUNCT, AN ACCESSORY.

ARDENT: ENTHUSIASTIC OR PASSIONATE.

ATTESTATION: PROVIDE OR SERVE AS CLEAR EVIDENCE OF.

ATTRIBUTION: ASCRIBE A WORK OR REMARK TO (A PARTICULAR AUTHOR, ARTIST, OR SPEAKER).

AU COURANT: AWARE OF WHAT IS GOING ON; WELL INFORMED; FASHIONABLE.

AVER: TO DECLARE TRUE, ASSERT THE TRUTH OF (A STATEMENT).

CARTOGRAPHY: THE SCIENCE OR PRACTICE OF DRAWING MAPS.

CHRISTEN: GIVE TO (SOMEONE OR SOMETHING) A NAME THAT REFLECTS A NOTABLE QUALITY OR CHARACTERISTIC.

COIGN OF VANTAGE: A FAVORABLE POSITION FOR OBSERVATION OR ACTION.

COINAGE: THE (DELIBERATE) FORMATION OF A NEW WORD.

CONSUMMATE: COMPLETED, PERFECTED, FULLY ACCOMPLISHED.

CONSUMMATION: THE POINT AT WHICH SOMETHING IS COMPLETE OR FINALIZED.

CONTROLLING METAPHOR: A METAPHOR THAT PERVADES OR ORGANIZES AN ENTIRE LITERARY WORK.

ECCLESIOLOGY: THEOLOGY AS APPLIED TO THE NATURE AND STRUCTURE OF A CHURCH.

EFFICACIOUS: SUCCESSFUL IN PRODUCING A DESIRED OR INTENDED RESULT; EFFECTIVE.

ELUCIDATE: MAKE (SOMETHING) CLEAR; EXPLAIN.

EMBRYONIC: (OF A SYSTEM, IDEA, OR ORGANIZATION) IN A RUDIMENTARY STAGE WITH POTENTIAL FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT; IMMATURE, UNDEVELOPED.

EMINENT: OF PERSONS: EXALTED, DIGNIFIED IN RANK OR STATION.

ENACTOR: SOMEONE WHO PUT INTO PRACTICE (A BELIEF, IDEA, OR SUGGESTION).

ENDEMIC: CONSTANTLY OR REGULARLY FOUND AMONG A (SPECIFIED) PEOPLE.

ENGENDER: CAUSE OR GIVE RISE TO (A FEELING, SITUATION, OR CONDITION); TO FORM, ORIGINATE, BE PRODUCED.

ENSUE: TO HAPPEN OR OCCUR AFTERWARD.

EPIGRAM: A PITHY SAYING OR REMARK EXPRESSING AN IDEA IN A CLEVER AND AMUSING WAY.

EVINCE: TO PROVE BY ARGUMENT OR EVIDENCE; TO ESTABLISH.

ETYMOLOGY: THE ORIGIN OF A WORD AND THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ITS MEANING.

EXPLICATION: THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING OR BRINGING OUT WHAT IS IMPLICITLY CONTAINED IN A NOTION, PROPOSITION, PRINCIPLE, ETC.; THE RESULT OF THIS PROCESS.

EXPOUND: PRESENT AND EXPLAIN (A THEORY OR IDEA) SYSTEMATICALLY AND IN DETAIL.

EXPOSITION: A COMPREHENSIVE DESCRIPTION AND EXPLANATION OF AN IDEA OR THEORY.

FACADE: AN OUTWARD APPEARANCE THAT IS MAINTAINED TO CONCEAL A LESS PLEASANT OR CREDITABLE REALITY.

FEIGN: PRETEND TO BE AFFECTED BY.

FORAY: AN ATTEMPT TO BECOME INVOLVED IN A NEW ACTIVITY OR SPHERE.

FREIGHT: TO LOAD, STORE; TO BEAR UPON AS A LOAD.

GRANDILOQUENT: EXTRAVAGANT IN LANGUAGE, STYLE, OR MANNER, ESPECIALLY IN A WAY THAT IS INTENDED TO IMPRESS.

IMMOLATE: KILL OR OFFER AS A SACRIFICE, ESPECIALLY BY BURNING.

IMPROMPTU: DONE WITHOUT BEING PLANNED, ORGANIZED, OR REHEARSED.

IMP: A LITTLE DEVIL OR DEMON, AN EVIL SPIRIT.

INDEFATIGABLE: INCAPABLE OF BEING WEARIED; THAT CANNOT BE TIRED OUT; UNWEARIED, UNTIRING, UNREMITTING IN LABOUR OR EFFORT.

INDIFFERENCE: LACK OF INTEREST, CONCERN, OR SYMPATHY.

INSIDIOUS: TREACHEROUS, DECEITFUL, UNDERHAND, CUNNING, CRAFTY.

INVIOLABLE: NEVER TO BE BROKEN, INFRINGED, OR DISHONORED.

LUMINARY: A PERSON WHO INSPIRES OR INFLUENCES OTHERS, ESP. ONE PROMINENT IN A PARTICULAR SPHERE.

MAGISTERIAL: HAVING OR SHOWING GREAT AUTHORITY; OF OR PERTAINING TO A MASTER-WORKMAN; DISPLAYING A MASTER’S SKILL.

MATRONYMIC: A NAME DERIVED FROM THE NAME OF A MOTHER OR FEMALE ANCESTOR.

MILIEU: A MEDIUM, ENVIRONMENT, ‘SURROUNDINGS’.

MORPHOLOGY: SHAPE, FORM, EXTERNAL STRUCTURE OR ARRANGEMENT.

NATAL: OF OR RELATING TO THE PLACE OR TIME OF ONE’S BIRTH.

NIHILISM: AN EXTREME FORM OF SCEPTICISM, INVOLVING THE DENIAL OF ALL EXISTENCE.

OCCLUDE: STOP, CLOSE UP, OR OBSTRUCT.

PALATIAL: RESEMBLING A PALACE IN BEING SPACIOUS AND SPLENDID.

PARADIGMATIC: SERVING AS A PATTERN; EXEMPLARY.

PATRONYMIC: A NAME DERIVED FROM THE NAME OF A FATHER OR ANCESTOR, TYPICALLY BY THE ADDITION OF A PREFIX OR SUFFIX.

PARAMOUNT: MORE IMPORTANT THAN ANYTHING ELSE; SUPREME.

PERDURABLE: ENDURING CONTINUOUSLY; IMPERISHABLE.

POSTERITY: ALL FUTURE GENERATIONS OF PEOPLE.

PRECEPTOR: ONE WHO INSTRUCTS; A TEACHER, INSTRUCTOR.

PRIMORDIAL: EXISTING AT OR FROM THE BEGINNING OF TIME.

PROFFER: TO BRING OR PUT BEFORE A PERSON FOR ACCEPTANCE; TO OFFER, PRESENT.

PROGENITOR: A PERSON OR THING FROM WHICH SOMETHING ORIGINATES; AN ANCESTOR OR PARENT.

PROMINENCE: THE FACT OR CONDITION OF STANDING OUT FROM SOMETHING BY PHYSICALLY PROJECTING OR BEING PARTICULARLY NOTICEABLE.

PROPOUND: PUT FORWARD (AN IDEA, THEORY, OR POINT OF VIEW) FOR CONSIDERATION BY OTHERS.

PROTOTYPE: A FIRST, TYPICAL OR PRELIMINARY MODEL OF SOMETHING, FROM WHICH OTHER FORMS ARE DEVELOPED OR COPIED.

PROVENANCE: THE PLACE OF ORIGIN OR EARLIEST KNOWN HISTORY OF SOMETHING.

PYRE: A PILE OR HEAP OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL, ESPECIALLY WOOD; USUALLY, A FUNERAL PILE FOR BURNING A DEAD BODY.

RAGTAG: UNTIDY, DISORGANIZED, OR INCONGRUOUSLY VARIED IN CHARACTER.

RAREFIED: OF OR RELATING TO A SELECT GROUP.

REDACT: TO PUT (MATTER) INTO PROPER LITERARY FORM; TO WORK UP, ARRANGE, OR EDIT.

REFERENT: THAT WHICH IS REFERRED TO BY A WORD OR EXPRESSION.

REPOSED: BE SITUATED OR KEPT IN A PARTICULAR PLACE; PLACE SOMETHING, ESPECIALLY CONFIDENCE OR TRUST, IN.

REPRISE: A REPETITION OR FURTHER PERFORMANCE OF SOMETHING.

RESOLUTE: ADMIRABLY PURPOSEFUL, DETERMINED, AND UNWAVERING.

RESPLENDENT: ATTRACTIVE AND IMPRESSIVE THROUGH BEING RICHLY COLORFUL OR SUMPTUOUS.

RHETORICAL: EXPRESSED IN TERMS INTENDED TO PERSUADE OR IMPRESS.

SALVIFIC: TENDING TO SAVE, CAUSING SALVATION.

SCHISM: A SPLIT OR DIVISION BETWEEN STRONGLY OPPOSED SECTIONS OR PARTIES, CAUSED BY DIFFERENCES IN OPINION OR BELIEF.

SPURN: REJECT WITH DISDAIN OR CONTEMPT.

SUBLATE: ASSIMILATE (A SMALLER ENTITY) INTO A LARGER ONE.

TARRY: TO ABIDE TEMPORARILY, TO SOJOURN; TO STAY, REMAIN, LODGE (IN A PLACE).

TERMINUS: A FINAL POINT IN SPACE OR TIME; AN END OR EXTREMITY.

TOEHOLD: A RELATIVELY INSIGNIFICANT POSITION FROM WHICH FURTHER PROGRESS MAY BE MADE.

UNASSUAGEABLE: NOT ABLE TO BE SOOTHED OR RELIEVED.

UNDETERRED: PERSEVERING WITH SOMETHING DESPITE SETBACKS.

UNOBTRUSIVE: NOT CONSPICUOUS OR ATTRACTING ATTENTION.

UNOCCLUDED: NOT OBSTRUCTED.

UNTOWARD: UNEXPECTED AND INAPPROPRIATE OR INCONVENIENT.

VALORIZE: GIVE OR ASCRIBE VALUE OR VALIDITY TO (SOMETHING).

VERIDICAL: TRUTHFUL; COINCIDING WITH REALITY.

VICISSITUDE: A CHANGE OF CIRCUMSTANCES OR FORTUNE, TYPICALLY ONE THAT IS UNWELCOME OR UNPLEASANT.

VINDICATE: SHOW OR PROVE TO BE RIGHT, REASONABLE, OR JUSTIFIED.

VIRULENT: BITTERLY HOSTILE.

Definitions taken from the Oxford English Dictionary and the Oxford American English Dictionary.

FOOTNOTES

  1. 741113 - מכתב לדאוג'י פונג'ה מבומביי 741113
  2. צ'.צ' אָאדי 1.46
  3. צ'.צ'. אָאדי 7.37
  4. צ'.צ' מַדְהְיַה 19.156
  5. צ'.צ' אָאדי 7.37
  6. צ'.צ' מַדְהְיַה 23.105
  7. שׂ.בּ. 1.4.1
  8. ביוני 1927 שְׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה הגדיל לעשות את סַגְ'גַ'נַה-תוֹשַנִי (נוסד ב-1881 ע"י שְׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיוינוֹדַה טְהָאקוּרַה) לכתב-עת בשפה האנגלית הנקרא "המפייס". (כותרת זו, כשם שקרא כתב-העת הראשון, היא "תרגום חופשי לאנגלית" של סַגְ'גַ'נַה-תוֹשַנִי). המפייס מתחיל בכרך מספר עשרים-וחמש, מפני שהוא ההמשך של סַגְ'גַ'נַה-תוֹשַנִי - שכעת "לבשה וערכה עצמה באנגלית על מנת לפנות בתחינה לעולם ולקהל הרחב" (המפייס 25:4). כתב-העת הופיע באופן חודשי עד יוני 1933 (כרך 30, מס' 12), ולאחר פער של ארבעה-עשר חודש, שב וחידש עצמו וראה אור מדי שבועיים.
  9. הַוּישְׂוַה-וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאגַ'ה שַׂבְּהָא היא "היסטורית" מפני שעשתה את ההופעה שלה בזמן תקופת ששת הַגּוֹסְוָאמִים. לאחר שעמדה מול תקופות של שקיעה, הַשַׂבְּהָא כוננה מחדש בחגיגיות בידי שְׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיוינוֹדַה טְהָאקוּרַה ב-1886 (תחת השם המקוצר וישְׂוַה-וַיְשְׁנַּוַה שַׂבְּהָא), ואף ב-1918 "הוארה מחדש" (תחת השם הקודם) ע"י שְׂרילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה. כפי שהסביר זאת, וישְְׂוַה-וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאגַ'ה פירושו "מלך כל הוישנוים בעולם", הווה אומר, שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ, ואילו השבהא היא קהל או אסיפה של אלה הבאים לסגוד לו (סַגְ'גַ'נַה-תוֹשַנִי, מראה מקום שׂ.בּ.ו. 1:73-70).
  10. המונח "משימת הַגַּוּדִיַה" נעשה בשימוש המכיל תדיר גם את הגַּוַּדִּיַה-מַטְהַה והַוּישְׂוַה-וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאגַ'ה שַׂבְּהָא. הַשַׂבְּהָא, כפי שמניח זאת בְּהַקְתי ויקָאשַׂה סְוָאמִי (שׂ.בּ.ו 1:259) "שירתה כאיבר הרשמי במוסד הגַּוַּדִּיַה-מַטְהַה". הפריטים הבאים יעבירו מושג כלשהו לגבי היחסים בין הַמַטְהַה וְהַשַׂבְּהָא: 1) רשימה ממוספרת של הַגַּוּדִיַה מַטְהוֹת הופיעה על השער הפנימי והאחורי של המפייס בין 1927-1933 תחת הכותרת "מטהות המזוהות עם שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה-וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאגַ'ה שַׂבְּהָא." 2) הזמנות לאירועים עיקריים במטהות שלחו המזכירים של שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה-וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאגַ'ה שַׂבְּהָא, לעתים על מכשירי כתיבה המראים ניירות כתיבה עם גם "שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה וַיְשְׁנַּוַה רַג' שַׂבְּהָא" ו-"שְׂרִי גַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהְ" בראשם (המפייס 28:58-57, 104, 30:32). 3) לזכותה של הַשַׂבְּהָא נזקף ארגון "התערוכה התֵּאִיסְטית" בְּמָאיָאפּוּרַה, סמוך לִשְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַטְהַה, בפברואר, 1930, שעלתה מחדש, ב-1931 בִּשְׁרִי גַוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה, כַּלְכּוּתָה, ושוב בינואר 1933 בְּדָקָּה. 4) שְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַטְהַה בְּמָאיָאפּוּרַה, קרויה "אם הַמַּטְהוֹת" של כל מוסד הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה, מתוארת גם כמפקדה של הַוּישְׂוַה וַיְשְׁנַּבַּה רָאג' שַׂבְּהָא" (המפייס 27:269) כמו גם "אם המטהות הראשית של שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה וַיְשְׁנַּו רָאג' שַׂבְּהָא, נוסדה למטרת החדרת כל היקום עם נָאם סַנְׂקִירְתַנַה כפי שֶפִּילֵל וִייחֵל לכך שְׂרִי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַהָאפְּרַבְּהוּ" (המפייס 31:140). 5) מאמר "החיים בתוך הַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה" מתחילים: "הריבון העליון שְׂרִי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה עם אשר לו שוכן באופן נצחי בַּשְׂרִי צַ'יְתַנְיַה מַטְהַה וְהַגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה המזוהה איתה המתממשות בכל רחבי הארץ בחסדו של שְׂרִי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה תחת חסות שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאג' שַׂבְּהָא" (המפייס 30:141). 6) המאמר "משימת הַגַּוּדִּיַה במערב" מציין: "שְׂרִי-וישְׂוַה-וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאג' שַׂבְּהָא שולחת למערב חבורה של מזמינים ומסבירים לשאת את המסר של שְׂרִי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה לִבְנֵי-תַרְבּוּת אלה" (המפייס 30:325-22). 7) רוב הגליונות של המפייס הכילו מדור המציג חדשות ע"פ פעולות התנועה. תוך שהמשיך לדווח את אותם סוגי אירועים, המדור עבר סדרה של שינויי שם: מ-"לנו" דרך "סביב הַמַּטְהוֹת", "משימת הַגַּוּדִּיַה", "שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאג' שַׂבְּהָא (משימת הַגַּוּדִּיַה)" עד, לבסוף, "שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאג' שַׂבְּהָא".
  11. כמה דוגמאות: "התוכנית" המפורסמת של 1932 "טקס שְׂרִי שְׂרִי בְּרַגַ'מַנְדַל פַּריקְרַמַה" נותן את התואר של המנחה, שְׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה כ-"נשיא-אאצ'אריה של שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה וַיְשְׁנַּוְ רָאג' שַׂבְּהָא" (המפייס 30:92). בקבלה של מושל בֶּנְגָּל בְּמָאיָאפּוּרַה, פָּנְדִיט א.צ' בָּנֶרְגִ'י "מזכיר שְׂרִי וישְׂוַה וַיְשְׁנַּוְ רָאג' שַׂבְּהָא" בנאום הקבלה שלו "מתוקף המשימה" (המפייס 31:253), מתייחס לִשְׂרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה "כנשיא-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של משימה זאת" (המפייס 31:260). במאמר "המסר של שרי צַ'יְתַנְיַה", בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה הוא "המייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של שְׂרִי גַוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה והמנהיג הרוחני הנוכחי של הַשַׂבְּהָא" (המפייס 32:12); באופן דומה, ב-"פניית קבלה" לב.ה. בּון מַהָארָאגַ'ה מתייחס "אזרחי כלכותה" אל "מורך הרוחני המהולל ביותר, פַּרַמַהַמְּסַה שְׂרִימַד בְּהַקְתי סידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי גוֹסְוָאמִי מַהָארָאג', נשיא-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של הַגַּוּדִּיַה-מַטְהַה" (המפייס 32:115).
  12. פונה למורים של מוסד טְהָאקוּרַה בְּהַקְתיוינוֹדַה בְּמָאיָאפּוּרַה, מתייחס בְּהַקְתי פְּרַדִיפַּה תִירְתְהַה מַהָארָאגַ'ה לִבְהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה כאל "מייסד-נשיא של מוסד זה" (המפייס 31:397). הוא "הנשיא-מייסד של שרי גודיה מטהה" בִּ-"שְׂרִי גַוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה: סקיצה היסטורית ותיאורית", מאמר ארוך ע"ש "מַהוֹפַּדֵשַׂקַה שְׂרִיפַּד ק.מ. בְּהַקְתיבַּנְדְהַבּ בּ.ל." (המפייס 32:394). עלינו גם לציין שֶׁבְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה נקרא לעתים מזדמנות "הראש-המארגן של משימת הַגַּוּדִּיַה" (המפייס 26:221, 30:256, 32:254).
  13. היה זה הראשון מבין שלושה כרכים מתוכננים מראש. הכרך השני לא פורסם עד 2004 (כלכותה: משימת הַגַּוּדִּיַה); השלישי, מעולם לא נכתב ככל הנראה.
  14. בְּהַקְתי ויקָאשַׂה סְוָאמִי כותב (ש.בּ.ו 2:363-62): "בתור העורך בפועל והתורם הראשי למפייס, בְּהַקְתי סוּדְהָאקַרַה החזיק במעמד יוקרתי וייחודי בין אחיו הרוחניים. בקיא גם בהבנה פילוסופית ובביטוי-עצמי באנגלית, וליבו אחד עם זה של גוּרוּדֵוַה שלו, הוא היה מעשית האני האחר בקירתנה של שְׂרִילַה סַרַסְוַתי טְהָאקוּרַה אשר בוטא באנגלית; כך שְׂרִילַה סַרַסְוַתי טְהָאקוּרַה לעתים פרסם את מאמריו שלו תחת השם פרופ' נישׂי קַנְת סָאנְיָאל, מ.א., ולהיפך... עוד מיזם חשוב שהופקד בידו היה איסוף עבור הספר בה' הידיעה שְׂרִי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה. הוטל עליו גם לכתוב הרצאות לִשְׂרִימַד בּוֹן מַהָארָאגַ'ה למסירה באנגליה."
  15. הפרופסור להיסטוריה של רֵיְוֶונְשׁוֹ מעניק את הסדר הכרונולוגי שלהם: "המורים הפרה-היסטוריים המקוריים, שהם המקור הבראשיתי של ארבע הקהילות, בסדר כרונולוגי של הופעתם, הם (1) לַקְשְׁמִי, בת-הלוויה הנצחית והבלתי-נפרדת של וישְׁנּוּ, (2) בְּרַהְמָא שנוצר מטבור הלוטוס של גַרְבְּהוֹדַקַשַׂיִי וישְׁנּוּ, (3) רוּדְרַה שנוצר מן הַפּוּרוּשַׁה השני, ו-(4) ארבעת הַסַּנוֹת שהם בנים של בְּרַהְמָא שנולד מן הַמֶּחְשָׁב. הסדר הכרונולוגי של האאצ'אריות של עידן הברזל הוא (1) שְׂרִי וישׁנּוּסְוָאמִי, (2) שׂרִי נימְבַּדיתְיַה, (3) שְׂרִי רָאמַנוּגַ'ה, ו-(4) שְׂרִי מַדְהְוַה" (ש.ק.צ' 150).
  16. זה המונח בו השתמש לרוב שְׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה. בַּגַּוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה, המונח "מייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה" היה שמור באופן דומה לחברי קבוצה אלו. דוגמא שופכת-אור: במפייס של אוקטובר 1931 (המפייס 29.4:125) אנו מוצאים אזכור של "שְׂרִילַה וישְׁנּוּ סְוָאמִי, מייסד-אָאצָ'ארְיַה של אחת מארבע שושלות המורים הַוַּיְשְׁנַּויוֹת." (באופן מעניין, שְׂרִי קְרּישְׁנַּה צַ'יְתַנְיַה לא פורסם עד מרץ, 1933).
  17. המפייס 28.5:135-129, 28.6:168-163, 28.7:220-216
  18. יזם מצליח בייחוד שנעשה תלמיד של בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה. לתיאור של דבק איש-בית זה, ראה ש.בּ.ו 2:371-364.
  19. סגנון זה כמו גם התוכן מעיד בבירור על נישׂיקָאנְתַה סָאנְיָאל בתור המחבר. ראה הערה 15 לעיל עבור מערכת היחסים הקרובה שלו - במיוחד סביב נושא הכתיבה באנגלית - עם בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה
  20. "אֶקְלֶזְיוֹלוֹגְיָה" פירושו ענף התיאולוגיה העוסק בהרכב הרוחני ואופן פעולתה של הכנסיה (אֶקְלֵזְיָה). המושג נטבע במאה ה-19 באנגליה כדי לציין השתקפויות בנוגע לאדריכלות הכנסיה - המבנה והקישוט של המבנה הגשמי. כעת המושג, בשימושו הנוצרי, התרחב וכלל נושאים כגון: מהו יחד הכנסיה לישוע או אלוהים? או לממלכת אלוהים? כיצד הכנסיה מושיעה? מהו יחס הכנסייה לעולם או לחברה החילונית? למסורת הוישנוה שלנו יש אֶקְלֶזְיוֹלוֹגְיָה בפועל, כך שאנו יכולים בנוחות לאמץ מושג זה. מילון אוקספורד לשפה האנגלית נותן הגדרה זו עבור "אֶקְלֵזְיָה": "מילה יוונית לאסיפה המתקהלת תדיר; מתייחסת בראש ובראשונה לאסיפה הכללית של אזרחי אתונה. עם בואה של הנצרות נעשתה מילה זו לציון עבור הכנסייה." המילה איפוא חופפת למצבנו: אנחנו גם אסיפה, קהל - שבהא, כְּבְ"וישְׂוַה-וַיְשְׁנַּוַה-רָאגַ'ה שַׂבְּהָא." וכפי שאנו נראה, אדריכלות קדושה היא בעלת תפקיד בולט בְּאיסְקּוֹן, כפי שעשתה בזאת הקודמת לה.
  21. "מטאפורה שולטת" הוא מונח השאול מתחום ביקורת הספרות. הוא מתאר מטאפורה העוברת כחוט השני דרך יצירה ספרותית שלמה.
  22. ש.בּ.ו 1:66. תיאור זה של מקור תנועת הַגַּוּדִּיַה מבוסס על חומר מתוך ש.בּ.ו, "חלק ראשון: סקירה ביוגרפית" (ש.בּ.ו 1:122-1).
  23. מקום זה שוריין ב-1918 כמרכז להזמנה ולהסברה בכלכותה עם השם "בְּהַקְתיוינוֹדַה אָאסַנַה". בזמן זה שהו ארבעה אנשי בית (גְרּיהַסְתְהַה) עם משפחותיהם; לִבְהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי טְהָאקוּרַה היו מגורים על הגג (ש.בּ.ו 1:69-8). המקום הפך למקדש עם השם "גַוּדִּיַה מַטְהַה" ב-1920. היה זה בו, כעבור שנתיים, שֶׁשְּׂרִילַה פְּרַבְּהוּפָּאדַה פגש את מורו הרוחני.
  24. "שְרִילַה בְּהַקְתיסידְדְהָאנְתַה סַרַסְוַתִי כיוון (את גַ'גַדְבַּנְדְהוּ) לחנוך מקדש שמתוכו יוכל מסר גַוּרַסוּנְדַרַה להישמע בכל תבל" (ש.בּ.ו 2:366).
  25. We find this same ecclesiology restated in The Harmonist some five years later (March 15, 1935). In an article titled "Sreedham Mayapur" (Harm. 32.14:313- 315), a proposal to relocate the "parent Math" from Śrī Caitanya Maṭha in Māyāpur to Śrī Gauḍīya Maṭha in Calcutta, though "asked with every appearance of honest enquiry," is firmly rejected on the grounds that "Sreedham Mayapur is the descended Divine Realm," and "The Gaudiya Math of Calcutta and the branch Maths of the Mission all over the world have their spiritual justification to territorial existence as training centers for the service of Sreedham Mayapur."
  26. Here the author has adapted a well-known phrase from the Christian Bible: "For in him [the Lord] we live, and move, and have our being . . . ." (Acts 17:28).
  27. Śrīla Prabhupāda: "The ācārya gives the suitable method for crossing the ocean of nescience by accepting the boat of the Lord’s lotus feet, and if this method is strictly followed, the followers will ultimately reach the destination, by the grace of the Lord. This method is called ācārya-sampradāya. It is therefore said, sampradāya-vihīnā ye mantrās te niṣphalā matāḥ [A mantra received outside of an authorized succession of strict followers is without effect.] (Padma Purāṇa). The ācārya-sampradāya is strictly bona fide. Therefore one must accept the ācāryasampradāya; otherwise one’s endeavor will be futile" (SB 10.2.31, purport).
  28. SB 4.28.47
  29. SB 4.28.51
  30. The statement “ISKCON is my body" has repeatedly been cited as a remark by Śrīla Prabhupāda himself. (See, for example, the introduction to the 1986 Vyāsa Pūjā book by Draviḍa Dāsa, as well as the Vyāsa Pūjā offerings from China in 1986, from Gaṇapati Dāsa Swami in 1987, from Kīrtirāja Dāsa in 1991, from Nityodita Swami in 1995. In an offering of 1997 Tamāl Krishna Goswami reflects with feeling on this “well-known statement" of Śrīla Prabhupāda, and the next year Giridhārī Swami notes in his homage, “We have all heard your well-known saying ‘ISKCON is my body.’") However, we currently have no direct attestation for this assertion. Nevertheless, we can accept the truth of the statement simply on our understanding the meaning of “Founder-Ācārya" as presented in The Harmonist.
  31. "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the living entities, the material energy, the spiritual energy and the entire creation are all individual substances. In the ultimate analysis, however, together they constitute the supreme one, the Personality of Godhead. Therefore those who are advanced in spiritual knowledge see unity in diversity" (SB 6.8.32-33). In his purport to CC Madhya 10.113, Prabhupāda states that "the principle of unity in diversity" is "philosophically known as acintya-bhedābheda—simultaneous oneness and difference." (CC Madhya 10.113)
  32. Bhakti Vikāśa Swami: "The crowing glory of all Gauḍīya Maṭha activities hitherto came in 1933, with the dispatching of preachers to the West" (SBV 1:108).
  33. The Harmonist had ceased publication in 1937
  34. On October 1, 1935, the chief of the European missionaries, Bhakti Hṛdaya Bon Mahārāja, paid a formal visit to the Mahārāja of Tripura. An exuberant account of the occasion appeared in The Harmonist of November 7, 1935 (Harm. 32.5:116- 118) under the title "First Hindu Temple in London." In it we read: "Swamiji [B. H. Bon] then referred to the activities of the Gaudiya Math in England and Central Europe, and intimated to His Highness the wish of His Divine Master, the Head of the Gaudiya Math, for the erection of the first Hindu Temple in London and a Home for the diffusion of the spiritual culture of India in the West. His Highness listened graciously to the proposals of Swamiji and was pleased to convey to him in the afternoon his kind decision to meet the entire cost of erection of the London Gaudiya Math Temple . . . ." However, a year later, Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura became much displeased with Bon Mahārāja, so much so that he recalled him from London (refusing even to grant him audience upon his return) and wrote the Mahārāja of Tripura to give no further money to Bon Mahārāja (SBV 2:302).
  35. For a profile of Bhakti Vilāsa Tīrtha Mahārāja, see SBV 2:332-339. To this it should be added that according to Śrīla Prabhupāda the unauthorized action of Tīrtha Mahārāja initiated the break-up of the Gauḍīya Maṭha (VB: Room Conversation, Bombay, 23 Sept. 1973).
  36. This is Śrīla Prabhupāda’s spelling, which captures the Bengali pronunciation of his Sanskrit initiation name, Maṅgala-nilāya Dāsa. (In Śrīla Prabhupāda-lilamrita this devotee appears under the pseudonym "Mukti.")
  37. (VB: Letter to Mangalniloy, July 16, 1966). (The date is three days after Prabhupāda incorporated ISKCON.)
  38. VB: Letter to the Secretary, Gaudiya Mission, May 23, 1969. "Gauḍīya Mission": In his purport to Caitanya-caritāmṛta Ādi-līlā, 12.8, Prabhupāda refers to the split of the Gauḍīya Maṭha institution into "two factions" over rival claimants to be the next ācārya. Much litigation ensued. The faction headquartered at the Calcutta Bāg-bazar temple took the name "Gauḍīya Mission," while the faction headquartered at the Māyāpura Śrī Caitanya Maṭha under Tīrtha Mahārāja was called "Gauḍīya Maṭha." Even now a sign placed by the main altar there proclaims: It is the parent Math of all the Gaudiya Maths Sri Chaitanya Math Sri Mandir
  39. In his last two month on earth, Śrīla Prabhupāda put time and energy into establishing the Bhaktivedanta Swami Charity Trust, with the central aim of uniting the Sārasvata family—the followers of Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura—in a cooperative effort to restore and develop Gaura-maṇḍala-bhūmi. Tamal Krishna Goswami recorded how Śrīla Prabhupāda laid down the aim and provided a concrete example. Prabhupāda said, "No more non-cooperation. Now everyone cooperate to spread Lord Caitanya’s movement. Just like Śrīdhara Mahārāja is having trouble finishing his Nath Mandir. So in that way, cooperate" (TKG 293).
  40. Letter to an unnamed Gurukula teacher, quoted in BTG 54.17 (1973).
  41. Letter to Tuṣṭa Kṛṣṇa. Ahmedabad, 14 Dec., 1972.
  42. The "seed" itself is Śrīla Prabhupāda, sprung from Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s Gauḍīya Maṭha. Although the parent plant perished, its seed was borne across the waters, whereupon it took root, flourished, and fructified. Of course, Prabhupāda is described as "planting the seed," for the neonatal ISKCON is a seed as well. Both can be called seeds, on the ecclesiological principle that the spiritual institution is non-different from the Founder-Ācārya
  43. Yet still on condition that ISKCON remained wholesome.
  44. This may be somewhat more so when the Caitanya-caritāmṛita’s kṛṣṇa-bhāvāmṛta becomes tweaked to kṛṣṇa-bhāvanāmṛta. There is little difference between the meanings of the two words, but to put a nice point on it, kṛṣṇa-bhāva can be taken to denote a feeling; kṛṣṇa-bhāvana, a complete state of being. However, the nature of kṛṣṇa-bhāva itself is such that it is all-absorbing kṛṣṇa-bhāvana. This later word, we should note, makes a eminent appearance in Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava literature, as Śrīla Prabhupāda points out: "Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura has given us a transcendental literary work entitled Kṛṣṇa-bhāvanāmṛta, which is full with Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes. Exalted devotees can remain absorbed in Kṛṣṇa-thought by reading such books" (Kṛṣṇa Ch. 46).
  45. See SBV I:70-73, for an English translation of the article
  46. This sense is widespread. For example: "‘Visva-vaishnava-raja-sabha’ refers to the society which is composed of those Vaishnavas who are the kings (i.e. the foremost) of all the Vaishnavas present in this world" (Bhakitikusum Sraman 355).
  47. CC Ādi 12.8, purport. Such statements do not express the whole of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s attitude toward his godbrothers. Another, more appreciative, perspective occasionally finds expression. Here are two examples. In the purport to SB 4.28.31, Prabhupāda writes: "The disciples of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Gosvāmī Mahārāja are all Godbrothers, and although there are some differences of opinion, and although we are not acting conjointly, every one of us is spreading this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement according to his own capacity and producing many disciples to spread it all over the world." And in a letter of November 18, 1967 to his disciple Brahmānanda, Prabhupāda explains: "Even amongst our God-brothers we have misunderstanding but none of us is astray from the service of Krishna. My Guru Maharaja ordered us to execute his mission combinedly. Unfortunately we are now separated. But none of us have stopped preaching Krishna Consciousness. Even if there was misunderstanding amongst the Godbrothers of my Guru Maharaja none of them deviated from the transcendental loving service of Krishna. The idea is that provocation and misunderstanding may remain between one man and another. But our staunch faith in Krishna Consciousness may not allow any material disruption."
  48. Govinda Dāsī, DVD 1: "November 1965 – Summer 1970." Following Śrīla Prabhupāda : A Chronological Series. (ISKCON Cinema, 2006). Transcription from The Bhaktivedanta VedaBase 2011.1.
  49. In referring to the Six Gosvāmīs, Śrīla Prabhupāda himself tends to confine his use of "Prabhupāda" to Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Jīva. Previous ācāryas have applied the honorific to other members as well. For example, in a lecture of October 16, 1932, Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura refers to Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī as "Dāsa Gosvāmī Prabhupāda" (VB: Amṛta Vāṇī, Appendix), and in his commentary to Caitanya-bhāgavata, Ādi 1.25, he quotes Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, who refers to Sanātana Gosvāmī as "Our Prabhupāda, Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī." We should note that this exalted title has fallen into cheap usage within some deviant communities (apa-sampradāyas). Śrīla Prabhupāda refers to this when, in his purport to CC Madhya 10.23, he writes: "The prākṛta-sahajiyās are not even worthy of being called Vaiṣṇavas. They think that only caste gosvāmīs should be called Prabhupāda. Such ignorant sahajiyās . . . are envious of a bona fide spiritual master who is addressed as Prabhupāda, and they commit offenses by considering a bona fide spiritual master an ordinary human being or a member of a certain caste." Jayapatāka Swāmī also recounts a conversation with Śrīla Prabhupāda directly after Prabhupāda had met with some godbrothers: "Prabhupāda called us back in. He said, ‘They are upset that I am using the name Prabhupāda, so I said, ‘"What can I do? My disciples call me that."’ Then Prabhupāda said that actually the name Prabhupāda was very common among the caste gosvāmīs and other residents of Navadvīpa. So it was not an isolated name. He liked to keep it because he felt, ‘Why only the apa-sampradāyas should have monopoly over the name Prabhupāda?’" (Personal communication)
  50. The article explains the meanings and import of the name and announces that "[W]e American and European servants of His Divine Grace . . . prefer to address His Grace our Spiritual Master as Prabhupāda, and he has kindly said ‘Yes.’" (BTG 25:24) (1969 Back to Godhead Number 23)
  51. In BTG No. 26 (October, 1969)(1969 Back to Godhead Number 26), the article "The Hare Krishna Explosion" by Hayagriva has "Prabhupad" throughout. In BTG No. 28 (1969 Back to Godhead Number 28), the main feature, "The Great Soul Who Walks Among Us" (pp. 7-11), is mainly composed of large photographs of Prabhupāda (one full page; two others, one-and-three-fourths of a page). In the accompanying text, he is still "Swamiji." However, in other articles in the issue he is called "Prabhupad" or "Prabhupad A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami." In the article "Boston Wedding" (which also features many photographs), his first mention is "His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada," and after he is "Prabhupada" and "His Divine Grace."
  52. To be sure, other very important hallmarks of ISKCON were also in place by 1971, most notably: the brahmacārī, brahmacāriṇī, gṛhastha, and sannyāsa āśramas; the New Vrindavan rural community project; and the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust (which was established the day after the GBC). As significant as these are, they do not seem to function as core components, considered in terms of ecclesiology
  53. A photocopy of this stationery, used for a letter to Hayagriva, can be found in Hayagriva Dasa, The Hare Krishna Explosion among the photographs sectioned between pp. 128-129. Beneath "International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc.," "Acharya: Swami A.C. Bhaktivedanta" appears in bold capitals at the left margin. Directly below that stands the word "Trustees" (also in bold capitals), above nine names in a column below it. His name appeared the same way on letterhead bearing the San Francisco temple address on a letter Prabhupāda wrote in 1967 from that city. In other letters he is "A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, Acarya" or, under his signature, "Acarya International Society for Krishna Consciousness" (VB: Correspondence: Feb. 1, 1968 to Hare Krishna Aggarwal; Aug. 22, 1968 to David Exley). In a long letter of February 5, 1970 to Hanuman Prasad Poddar describing the activities and achievement of ISKCON, he notes ". . . in each banking account my name is there as Acarya."
  54. See BTG No. 26 (October, 1969) for a photocopy of the flyer
  55. Scanned copies of these are accessible at www.backtogodhead.in.
  56. The small, boxed Back to Godhead masthead in every issue contains "Founder: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami." But "Founder" here has reference to Back to Godhead, not ISKCON.
  57. Back to Godhead ceased dating its issues with no. 26 (October, 1969).
  58. Certain godbrothers in India, having gained a measure of access to a few of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s disciples, had insidiously undermined Prabhupāda’s authority and position, leading eventually to a compromise in the faith and allegiance of even some of his leaders. Śrīla Prabhupāda refers to such godbrothers in his purport to CC ādi. 10.7: "When our disciples similarly wanted to address their spiritual master as Prabhupāda, some foolish people became envious. Not considering the propaganda work of the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement, simply because these disciples addressed their spiritual master as Prabhupāda they became so envious that they formed a faction along with other such envious persons just to minimize the value of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement."
  59. Tamāla Kṛṣṇa Goswami: "When we had approached Prabhupāda and told him that as his disciples we would like a special prayer which we could recite in his honor, he had composed a verse in which he described his mission" (SS 187). A "personal" mantra, that is, honoring a certain spiritual master for some particular personal characteristic or achievement. The first praṇāma-mantra is "generic," that is, suitable being directed to any guru whose name is inserted within the mantra. The date of the new praṇāma-mantra: In a letter of April 9, 1970 to Pradyumna Dāsa, Śrīla Prabhupāda refers to it as "the new prayer addition," and proposes a grammatical modification to the Sanskrit.
  60. There is a rule in Sanskrit grammar for the formation of a patronymic or matronymic, that is, a name derived from one’s father or mother. In English, common surnames like "Johnson" or "Erickson" were originally patronymics ("John’s son"). In Scotland, the prefix "Mac-" or "Mc-" is the sign of a patronymic, "MacDonald" being (originally) Donald’s son; in Ireland FitzGerald was Gerald’s son. In Russian, "Ivanovitch" is a patronymic. Following the Sanskrit rule, Prabhupāda denoted himself with the name "Sārasvata," the son or servant of Sarasvatī Ṭhākura.
  61. The Harmonist of July 12, 1935 (Harm. 31:521-22) reports that "Her Highness Majarani Indira Devi, Regent Shaeba of Cooch Behar paid a visit to Sree Gaudiya Math, Baghbazar, Calcutta," where she met with Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura. During that meeting, the magazine reports: "Her Highness very earnestly enquired about the proposed visit of the Editor [Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura] to Europe for further extension of the propaganda in the West."
  62. We don’t know the precise time he realized this. In any case, there is no doubt that Śrīla Prabhupāda’s knowledge of the future was not that of ordinary, conditioned persons. In late fall of l965, Śrīla Prabhupāda sat on a park bench and chatted with Paul Ruben, a New York City subway conductor, who recollects (SPL 2:28): ‘‘He seemed to know he would have temples filled with devotees. He would look out and say, ‘I am not a poor man, I am rich. There are temples and books, they are existing, they are there, but the time is separating us from them.’"
  63. This instruction was set down on December 31, 1936 in the recorded minutes of his will. The original document is preserved at the Bhaktivedanta Research Center in Kolkata. For a photocopy, see MHP 289.
  64. Etymologically, the word goes back to the Latin committere, "to unite, connect."
  65. Satsvarūpa dāsa Goswami relates (SPL 4:95): "Though sometimes ignorant, his disciples, he knew, were not malicious. Yet these letters from India carried a spiritual disease transmitted by several of Prabhupāda’s Godbrothers to his disciples there. Prabhupāda had already been troubled when some of his Godbrothers had refused to help him secure land in Māyāpur, the birthplace of Lord Caitanya. Although he had asked them to help his inexperienced disciples purchase land, they had not complied. In fact, some of them had worked against him. Prabhupāda had written to one of his Godbrothers, ‘I am so sorry to learn that there is a sort of conspiracy by some of our Godbrothers as not to give me a place at Māyāpur.’"
  66. Two memorable, aphoristic formulations of acintya-bhedābheda-tattva by Śrīla Prabhupāda: "Nothing is different from the Supreme. But the Supreme is always different from everything" (BG 18.78, purport). And: "In a sense, there is nothing but Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and yet nothing is Śrī Kṛṣṇa save and except His primeval personality" (CC Ādi 1.51, purport).
  67. This "portal" is, in truth, an outward manifestation of the heart of Śrīla Prabhupāda. That heart is large and magnanimous, and so is its manifestation in a path that girdles the world and a central temple that embraces the universe and beyond. All this resided in Śrīla Prabhupāda’s heart when he walked alone on the chilled concrete of Manhattan in 1966. Now, it is becoming hugely manifest to bestow its benediction munificently
  68. "We shall have another ISKCON there (in the spiritual sky)." See 721214 - Letter to Tusta Krsna written from Ahmedabad
  69. The Lord similarly appears to Śaṅkarācārya, acknowledges him as "My servant," and bids him: "Do not contaminate the inhabitants of Navadvīpa." Śaṅkara goes away with "devotion instilled in his heart"(NDM 68-9).
  70. In a conversation with Rāmeśvara (VB: Jan. 13, 1977, Allahabad), Prabhupāda explains how he received "all facilities": "I started my activities when I was seventy years old. So they [his Godbrothers] thought, ‘This man is gṛhastha. He is embarrassed with family life. What he’ll do?’ (laughs) That was their impression. But I never neglected. Guru Mahārāja told me. I was simply thinking, ‘How to do it? How to do it?’ I thought, ‘Let me become a rich businessman. The money will be required.’ That was my thought. But Guru Mahārāja was asking me, ‘You give up this. I’ll give you money.’ That I could not understand. I was planning. My plan was not wrong. But I was thinking ‘The money required, so let me earn some money. Then I shall begin.’ And Guru Mahārāja said, ‘You give up this moneyearning endeavor. You come completely. I’ll give you money.’ I can understand now. But my desire was there. Therefore he guided me."
  71. One of many examples: "Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura states in his Bhagavad-gītā commentary on the verse vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekeha kurunandana that one should serve the words of the spiritual master. The disciple must stick to whatever the spiritual master orders. Simply by following on that line, one sees the Supreme Personality of Godhead. . . . [I]f one sticks to the principles enunciated by the spiritual master, somehow or other he is in association with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Since the Lord is in the heart, He can advise a sincere disciple from within. . . . In conclusion, if a disciple is very serious to execute the mission of the spiritual master, he immediately associates with the Supreme Personality of Godhead by vāṇī or vapuḥ. This is the only secret of success in seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead" (SB 4.28.51, purport).
  72. Lectures: Philosophy Discussion: Discussion with Śyāmasundara: Arthur Schopenhauer.
  73. (TKG 45) In Śrīla Prabhupāda-Līlāmṛta, Satsvarūpa dāsa Goswami records a slightly variant version: "‘Your love for me,’ said Śrīla Prabhupāda, ‘will be shown by how much you cooperate to keep this institution together after I am gone’’’ (SPL 6:313). Regarding the difference between the two versions, Satsvarūpa dāsa Goswami states: "I heard it from Tamala Krsna Maharaja and wrote it down exactly as he told me. Tamala Krsna Maharaja has written the statement in TKG’s Diary with a slightly different sentence structure but the meaning is the same." Posted by Badrinārāyaṇa Dāsa on the electronic forum [email protected] net on June 21, 2013.
  74. Posted on [email protected], by Bhakti Charu Swami, June 21, 2013.
  75. The verse Śrīla Prabhupāda refers to is Ādi 9.34. Lord Caitanya says: "I am the only gardener. How many places can I go? How many fruits can I pick and distribute?" In his purport, Śrīla Prabhupāda points out: "Here Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu indicates that the distribution of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra should be performed by combined forces." See Conversation with Rādhā-Dāmodara Saṅkīrtana Party. March 16, 1976, Māyāpur

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